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    Ciurea, A., Klenerman, P., Hunziker, L., Horvath, E., Odermatt, B., Ochsenbein, A. F., Hengartner, H. and Zinkernagel, R. M., Persistence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus at very low levels in immune mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 1999. 96: 1196411969.
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    Grzimek, N., Dreis, D., Schmalz, S. and Reddehase, M. J., Random, asynchronous, and asymmetric transcriptional activity of enhancer-flanking major immediate-early genes ie1/3 and ie2 during murine cytomegalovirus latency in the lungs. J. Virol. 2001. 75: 26922705.
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    Thomsen, A. R., Nansen, A., Christensen, J. P., Andreasen, S. O. and Marker, O., CD40 ligand is pivotal to efficient control of virus replication in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J. Immunol. 1998. 161: 45834590.
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    Planz, O., Ehl, S., Furrer, E., Horvath, E., Brundler, M. A., Hengartner, H. and Zinkernagel, R. M., A critical role for neutralizing-antibody-producing B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and interferons in persistent and acute infections of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: implications for adoptive immunotherapy of virus carriers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 1997. 94: 68746879.
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    Zajac, A., Blattman, J., Murali-Krishna, K., Sourdive, D., Suresh, M., Altman, J. and Ahmed, R., Viral immune evasion due to persistence of activated T cells without effector function. J. Exp. Med. 1998. 188: 22052213.
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    Ciurea, A., Klenerman, P., Hunziker, L., Horvath, E., Senn, B. M., Ochsenbein, A. F., Hengartner, H. and Zinkernagel, R. M., Viral persistence in vivo through selection of neutralizing antibody-escape variants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 2000. 97: 27492754.
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    Ciurea, A., Hunziker, L., Klenerman, P., Hengartner, H. and Zinkernagel, R., Impairment of CD4(+) T cell responses during chronic virus infection. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 193: 297306.
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    Ciurea, A., Hunziker, L., Martinic, M., Oxenius, A., Hengartner, H. and Zinkernagel, R., CD4+ T cell epitope escape mutant virus selected in vivo. Nat. Med. 2001. 7: 795800.
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    Ou, R., Zhou, S., Huang, L. and Moskophidis, D., Critical role for alpha/beta and gamma interferons in persistence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by clonal exhaustion of cytotoxic T cells. J. Virol. 2001. 75: 84078423.
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    Karrer, U., Sierro, S., Wagner, M., Oxenius, A., Hengel, H., Koszinowski, U. H., Phillips, R. E. and Klenerman, P., Memory inflation: continuous accumulation of antiviral CD8+ T cells over time. J. Immunol. 2003. 170: 20222029.
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    Khan, N., Shariff, N., Cobbold, M., Bruton, R., Ainsworth, J. A., Sinclair, A. J., Nayak, L. and Moss, P. A., Cytomegalovirus seropositivity drives the CD8 T cell repertoire toward greater clonality in healthy elderly individuals. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 19841992.
  • 17
    Appay, V., Dunbar, P., Callan, M., Klenerman, P., Gillespie,G., Papagno, L., Ogg, G. S., King, A., Lechner, F., Spina, C. et al., Memory CD8+ T cells vary in differentiation phenotype in different persistent virus infections. Nat. Med. 2002. 8: 379385.
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    Cooper, S., Erickson, A., Adams, E., Kansopon, J., Weiner, A., Chien, D., Houghton, M., Parham, P. and Walker, C., Analysis of a successful immune response against HCV. Immunity 1999. 10: 439449.
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    Farci, P., Shimoda, A., Coiana, A., Diaz, G., Peddis, G., Melpolder, J. C., Strazzera, A., Chien, D. Y., Munoz, S. J., Balestrieri, A. et al., The outcome of acute hepatitis C predicted by the evolution of the viral quasispecies. Science 2000. 288: 339344.
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    Gerlach, J., Diepolder, H., Jung, M.-C., Gruener, N., Schraut, W., Zachoval, R., Hoffman, R., Schirren, C., Santantonio, T. and Pape, G., Recurrence of HCV after loss of virus specific CD4+ T cell response in acute Hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 1999. 117: 933941.
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    Grakoui, A., Shoukry, N. H., Woollard, D. J., Han, J. H., Hanson, H. L., Ghrayeb, J., Murthy, K. K., Rice, C. M. and Walker, C. M., HCV persistence and immune evasion in the absence of memory T cell help. Science 2003. 302: 659662.
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    Wei, X., Decker, J. M., Wang, S., Hui, H., Kappes, J.C., Wu, X., Salazar-Gonzalez, J. F., Salazar, M. G., Kilby, J. M., Saag, M. S. et al., Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1. Nature 2003. 422: 307312.
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    Moore, C., John, M., James, I., Christiansen, F., Witt, C. and Mallal, S., Evidence of HIV-1 adaptation to HLA-restricted immune responses at a population level. Science 2002. 296: 14391443.
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    Rosenberg, E. S., Altfeld, M., Poon, S. H., Phillips, M. N., Wilkes, B. M., Eldridge, R. L., Robbins, G. K., D'Aquila, R. T., Goulder, P. J. and Walker, B. D., Immune control of HIV-1 after early treatment of acute infection. Nature 2000. 407: 523526.
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    Barnes, E., Harcourt, G., Brown, D., Lucas, M., Phillips, R., Dusheiko, G. and Klenerman, P., The dynamics of T-lymphocyte responses during combination therapy for chronic hepatitisC virus infection. Hepatology 2002. 36: 743754.