• 1
    Han, S., Hathcock, K., Zheng, B., Kepler, T. B., Hodes, R. and Kelsoe, G., Cellular interaction in germinal centers. Roles of CD40 ligand and B7–2 in established germinal centers. J. Immunol. 1995. 155: 556567.
  • 2
    Qian, J., Burkly, L. C., Smith, E. P., Ferrant, J. L., Hoyer, L. W., Scott, D. W. and Haudenschild, C. C., Role of CD154 in the secondary immune response: the reduction of pre-existing splenic germinal centers and anti-factor VIII inhibitor titer. Eur. J. Immunol. 2000. 30: 25482554.
  • 3
    Foy, T. M., Laman, J. D., Ledbetter, J. A., Aruffo, A., Claassen, E. and Noelle, R. J., gp39-CD40 interactions are essential for germinal center formation and the development of B cell memory. J. Exp. Med. 1994. 180: 157163.
  • 4
    van den Eertwegh, A. J., Van Meurs, M., Foy, T. M., Noelle, R. J., Boersma, W. J. and Claassen, E., In vivo gp39-CD40 interactions occur in the non-follicular compartments of the spleen and are essential for thymus dependent antibody responses and germinal center formation. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1994. 355: 7580.
  • 5
    Gray, D., Dullforce, P. and Jainandunsing, S., Memory B cell development but not germinal center formation is impaired by in vivo blockade of CD40-CD40 ligand interaction. J. Exp. Med. 1994. 180: 141155.
  • 6
    Arpin, C., Dechanet, J., Van Kooten, C., Merville, P., Grouard, G., Briere, F., Banchereau, J. and Liu, Y. J., Generation of memory B cells and plasma cells in vitro. Science 1995. 268: 720722.
  • 7
    Breitfeld, D., Ohl, L., Kremmer, E., Ellwart, J., Sallusto, F., Lipp, M. and Forster, R., Follicular B helper T cells express CXC chemokine receptor 5, localize to B cell follicles, and support immunoglobulin production. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 192: 15451552.
  • 8
    Grammer, A. C., McFarland, R. D., Heaney, J., Darnell, B. F. and Lipsky, P. E., Expression, regulation, and function of B cell-expressed CD154 in germinal centers. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 41504159.
  • 9
    Uchida, J., Yasui, T., Takaoka-Shichijo, Y., Muraoka, M., Kulwichit, W., Raab-Traub, N. and Kikutani, H., Mimicry of CD40 signals by Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 in B lymphocyte responses. Science 1999. 286: 300303.
  • 10
    van Eijk, M., Defrance, T., Hennino, A. and de Groot, C., Death-receptor contribution to the germinal-center reaction. Trends Immunol. 2001. 22: 677682.
  • 11
    Xu, J., Foy, T. M., Laman, J. D., Elliott, E. A., Dunn, J. J., Waldschmidt, T. J., Elsemore, J., Noelle, R. J. and Flavell, R. A., Mice deficient for the CD40 ligand. Immunity 1994. 1: 423431.
  • 12
    Casamayor-Palleja, M., Khan, M. and MacLennan, I. C., A subset of CD4+ memory T cells contains preformed CD40 ligand that is rapidly but transiently expressed on their surface after activation through the T cell receptor complex. J. Exp. Med. 1995. 181: 12931301.
  • 13
    Kawabe, T., Naka, T., Yoshida, K., Tanaka, T., Fujiwara, H., Suematsu, S., Yoshida, N., Kishimoto, T. and Kikutani, H., The immune responses in CD40-deficient mice: impaired immunoglobulin class switching and germinal center formation. Immunity 1994. 1: 167178.
  • 14
    Yasui, T., Muraoka, M., Takaoka-Shichijo, Y., Ishida, I., Takegahara, N., Uchida, J., Kumanogoh, A., Suematsu, S., Suzuki, M. and Kikutani, H., Dissection of B cell differentiation during primary immune responses in mice with altered CD40 signals. Int. Immunol. 2002. 14: 319329.
  • 15
    Erickson, L. D., Vogel, L. A., Cascalho, M., Wong, J., Wabl, M., Durell, B. G. and Noelle, R. J., B cell immunopoiesis: visualizing the impact of CD40 engagement on the course of T cell-independent immune responses in an Ig transgenic system. Eur. J. Immunol. 2000. 30: 31213131.
  • 16
    Smith, K. G., Light, A., O'Reilly, L. A., Ang, S. M., Strasser, A. and Tarlinton, D., bcl-2 transgene expression inhibits apoptosis in the germinal center and reveals differences in the selection of memory B cells and bone marrow antibody-forming cells. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 191: 475484.
  • 17
    de Vinuesa, C. G., Cook, M. C., Ball, J., Drew, M., Sunners, Y., Cascalho, M., Wabl, M., Klaus, G. G. and MacLennan, I. C., Germinal centers without T cells. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 191: 485494.
  • 18
    Kwekkeboom, J., de Rijk, D., Kasran, A., Barcy, S., de Groot, C. and de Boer, M., Helper effector function of human T cells stimulated by anti-CD3 mAb can be enhanced by co-stimulatory signals and is partially dependent on CD40-CD40 ligand interaction. Eur. J. Immunol. 1994. 24: 508517.
  • 19
    Laman, J. D., ‘t Hart, B. A., Brok, H., Meurs, M., Schellekens, M. M., Kasran, A., Boon, L., Bauer, J., Boer, M. and Ceuppens, J., Protection of marmoset monkeys against EAE by treatment with a murine antibody blocking CD40 (mu5D12). Eur. J. Immunol. 2002. 32: 22182228.
  • 20
    Boon, L., Brok, H. P., Bauer, J., Ortiz-Buijsse, A., Schellekens, M. M., Ramdien-Murli, S., Blezer, E., van Meurs, M., Ceuppens, J., de Boer, M., t ‘Hart, B. A. and Laman, J. D., Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) using a chimeric antagonist monoclonal antibody against human CD40 is associated with altered B cell responses. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 29422949.
  • 21
    Boon, L., Laman, J. D., Ortiz-Buijsse, A., den Hartog, M. T., Hoffenberg, S., Liu, P., Shiau, F. and de Boer, M., Preclinical assessment of anti-CD40 Mab 5D12 in cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicology 2002. 174: 5365.
  • 22
    Van den Eertwegh, A. J., Noelle, R. J., Roy, M., Shepherd, D. M., Aruffo, A., Ledbetter, J. A., Boersma, W. J. and Claassen, E., In vivo CD40-gp39 interactions are essential for thymus-dependent humoral immunity. I. In vivo expression of CD40 ligand, cytokines, and antibody production delineates sites of cognate T-B cell interactions. J. Exp. Med. 1993. 178: 15551565.
  • 23
    Stadelmann, C. and Lassmann, H., Detection of apoptosis in tissue sections. Cell Tissue Res. 2000. 301: 1931.
  • 24
    Dal Porto, J. M., Haberman, A. M., Kelsoe, G. and Shlomchik, M. J., Very low affinity B cells form germinal centers, become memory B cells, and participate in secondary immune responses when higher affinity competition is reduced. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 195: 12151221.
  • 25
    Gommerman, J. L., Mackay, F., Donskoy, E., Meier, W., Martin, P. and Browning, J. L., Manipulation of lymphoid microenvironments in nonhuman primates by an inhibitor of the lymphotoxin pathway. J. Clin. Invest. 2002. 110: 13591369.
  • 26
    Brams, P., Black, A., Padlan, E. A., Hariharan, K., Leonard, J., Chambers-Slater, K., Noelle, R. J. and Newman, R., A humanized anti-human CD154 monoclonal antibody blocks CD154-CD40 mediated human B cell activation. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2001. 1: 277294.
  • 27
    Mohan, C., Shi, Y., Laman, J. D. and Datta, S. K., Interaction between CD40 and its ligand gp39 in the development of murine lupus nephritis. J. Immunol. 1995. 154: 14701480.
  • 28
    Grammer, A. C. and Lipsky, P. E., CD154-CD40 interactions mediate differentiation to plasma cells in healthy individuals and persons with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2002. 46: 14171429.
  • 29
    Gerritse, K., Laman, J. D., Noelle, R. J., Aruffo, A., Ledbetter, J. A., Boersma, W. J. and Claassen, E., CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1996. 93: 24992504.
  • 30
    Durie, F. H., Fava, R. A., Foy, T. M., Aruffo, A., Ledbetter, J. A. and Noelle, R. J., Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis with an antibody to gp39, the ligand for CD40. Science 1993. 261: 13281330.
  • 31
    Henn, V., Slupsky, J. R., Grafe, M., Anagnostopoulos, I., Forster, R., Muller-Berghaus, G. and Kroczek, R. A., CD40 ligand on activated platelets triggers an inflammatory reaction of endothelial cells. Nature 1998. 391: 591594.
  • 32
    Dullforce, P., Sutton, D. C. and Heath, A. W., Enhancement of T cell-independent immune responses in vivo by CD40 antibodies. Nat. Med. 1998. 4: 8891.
  • 33
    Garcia de Vinuesa, C., MacLennan, I. C., Holman, M. and Klaus, G. G., Anti-CD40 antibody enhances responses to polysaccharide without mimicking T cell help. Eur. J. Immunol. 1999. 29: 32163224.
  • 34
    Tarlinton, D. M. and Smith, K. G., Dissecting affinity maturation: a model explaining selection of antibody-forming cells and memory B cells in the germinal centre. Immunol. Today 2000. 21: 436441.
  • 35
    Reif, K., Ekland, E. H., Ohl, L., Nakano, H., Lipp, M., Forster, R. and Cyster, J. G., Balanced responsiveness to chemoattractants from adjacent zones determines B cell position. Nature 2002. 416: 9499.
  • 36
    Weller, S., Faili, A., Garcia, C., Braun, M. C., Le Deist, F. F., de Saint Basile, G. G., Hermine, O., Fischer, A., Reynaud, C. A. and Weill, J. C., CD40-CD40L independent Ig gene hypermutation suggests a second B cell diversification pathway in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2001. 98: 11661170.
  • 37
    Nakamura, M., Yagi, H., Kayaba, S., Ishii, T., Gotoh, T., Ohtsu, S. and Itoh, T., Death of germinal center B cells without DNA fragmentation. Eur. J. Immunol. 1996. 26: 12111216.