• 1
    Janeway, C. A. Jr. and Medzhitov, R., Innate immune recognition. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 20: 197216.
  • 2
    Takeda, K., Kaisho, T. and Akira, S., Toll-like receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2003. 21: 335376.
  • 3
    Dalldorf, F. G., Cromartie, W. J., Anderle, S. K., Clark, R. L. and Schwab, J. H., The relation of experimental arthritis to the distribution of streptococcal cell wall fragments. Am. J. Pathol. 1980. 100: 383402.
  • 4
    Burroughs, M., Rozdzinski, E., Geelen, S. and Tuomanen, E., A structure-activity relationship for induction of meningeal inflammation by muramyl peptides. J. Clin. Invest. 1993. 92: 297302.
  • 5
    Gold, M. R., Miller, C. L. and Mishell, R. I., Soluble non-cross-linked peptidoglycan polymers stimulate monocyte-macrophage inflammatory functions. Infect. Immun. 1985. 49: 731741.
  • 6
    Dokter, W. H., Dijkstra, A. J., Koopmans, S. B., Stulp, B. K., Keck, W., Halie, M. R. and Vellenga, E., G(Anh)MTetra, a natural bacterial cell wall breakdown product, induces interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 expression in human monocytes. A study of the molecular mechanisms involved in inflammatory cytokine expression. J. Biol. Chem. 1994. 269: 42014206.
  • 7
    Cundell, D. R., Kanthakumar, K., Taylor, G. W., Goldman, W. E., Flak, T., Cole, P. J. and Wilson, R., Effect of tracheal cytotoxin from Bordetella pertussis on human neutrophil function in vitro. Infect. Immun. 1994. 62: 639643.
  • 8
    Luker, K. E., Collier, J. L., Kolodziej, E. W., Marshall, G. R. and Goldman, W. E., Bordetella pertussis tracheal cytotoxin and other muramyl peptides: distinct structure-activity relationships for respiratory epithelial cytopathology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 1993. 90: 23652369.
  • 9
    Johannsen, L., Biological properties of bacterial peptidoglycan. Apmis 1993. 101: 337344.
  • 10
    Hoffmann, J. A., The immune response of Drosophila. Nature 2003. 426: 3338.
  • 11
    Anderson, K. V., Bokla, L. and Nusslein-Volhard, C., Establishment of dorsal-ventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo: the induction of polarity by the Toll gene product. Cell 1985. 42: 791798.
  • 12
    Lemaitre, B., Nicolas, E., Michaut, L., Reichhart, J. M. and Hoffmann, J. A., The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spatzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell 1996. 86: 973983.
  • 13
    Lemaitre, B., Kromer-Metzger, E., Michaut, L., Nicolas, E., Meister, M., Georgel, P., Reichhart, J. M. and Hoffmann, J. A., A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 1995. 92: 94659469.
  • 14
    Michel, T., Reichhart, J. M., Hoffmann, J. A. and Royet, J., Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature 2001. 414: 756759.
  • 15
    Pili-Floury, S., Leulier, F., Takahashi, K., Saigo, K., Samain, E., Ueda, R. and Lemaitre, B., In vivo RNAi analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adults. J. Biol. Chem. 2004. 279: 1284812853.
  • 16
    Gobert, V., Gottar, M., Matskevich, A. A., Rutschmann, S., Royet, J., Belvin, M., Hoffmann, J. A. and Ferrandon, D., Dual activation of the Drosophila Toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptors. Science 2003. 302: 21262130.
  • 17
    Ramet, M., Manfruelli, P., Pearson, A., Mathey-Prevot, B. and Ezekowitz, R. A., Functional genomic analysis of phagocytosis and identification of a Drosophila receptor for E. coli. Nature 2002. 416: 644648.
  • 18
    Gottar, M., Gobert, V., Michel, T., Belvin, M., Duyk, G., Hoffmann, J. A., Ferrandon, D. and Royet, J., The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature 2002. 416: 640644.
  • 19
    Choe, K. M., Werner, T., Stoven, S., Hultmark, D. and Anderson, K. V., Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science 2002. 296: 359362.
  • 20
    Dziarski, R., Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP). Mol. Immunol. 2004. 40: 877886.
  • 21
    Leulier, F., Parquet, C., Pili-Floury, S., Ryu, J. H., Caroff, M., Lee, W. J., Mengin-Lecreulx, D. and Lemaitre, B., The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognition. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 478484.
  • 22
    Schleifer, K. H. and Kandler, O., Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications. Bacteriol. Rev. 1972. 36: 407477.
  • 23
    Kim, M. S., Byun, M. and Oh, B. H., Crystal structure of peptidoglycan recognition protein LB from Drosophila melanogaster. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 787793.
  • 24
    Mellroth, P., Karlsson, J. and Steiner, H., A scavenger function for a Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 70597064.
  • 25
    Gelius, E., Persson, C., Karlsson, J. and Steiner, H., A mammalian peptidoglycan recognition protein with N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase activity. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003. 306: 988994.
  • 26
    Takehana, A., Katsuyama, T., Yano, T., Oshima, Y., Takada, H., Aigaki, T. and Kurata, S., Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 2002. 99: 1370513710.
  • 27
    Liu, C., Xu, Z., Gupta, D. and Dziarski, R., Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: a novel family of four human innate immunity pattern recognition molecules. J. Biol. Chem. 2001. 276: 3468634694.
  • 28
    Liu, C., Gelius, E., Liu, G., Steiner, H. and Dziarski, R., Mammalian peptidoglycan recognition protein binds peptidoglycan with high affinity, is expressed in neutrophils, and inhibits bacterial growth. J. Biol. Chem. 2000. 275: 2449024499.
  • 29
    Kang, D., Liu, G., Lundstrom, A., Gelius, E. and Steiner, H., A peptidoglycan recognition protein in innate immunity conserved from insects to humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 1998. 95: 1007810082.
  • 30
    Wang, Z. M., Li, X., Cocklin, R. R., Wang, M., Fukase, K., Inamura, S., Kusumoto, S., Gupta, D. and Dziarski, R., Human peptidoglycan recognition protein-L is an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 4904449052.
  • 31
    Dziarski, R., Platt, K. A., Gelius, E., Steiner, H. and Gupta, D., Defect in neutrophil killing and increased susceptibility to infection with nonpathogenic gram-positive bacteria in peptidoglycan recognition protein-S (PGRP-S)-deficient mice. Blood 2003. 102: 689697.
  • 32
    Chamaillard, M., Girardin, S. E., Viala, J. and Philpott, D. J., Nods, Nalps and Naip: intracellular regulators of bacterial-induced inflammation. Cell Microbiol. 2003. 5: 581592.
  • 33
    Inohara, N. and Nunez, G., NODs: intracellular proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2003. 3: 371382.
  • 34
    Bertin, J., Nir, W. J., Fischer, C. M., Tayber, O. V., Errada, P. R., Grant, J. R., Keilty, J. J., Gosselin, M. L., Robison, K. E., Wong, G. H. et al., Human CARD4 protein is a novel CED-4/Apaf-1 cell death family member that activates NF-κB. J. Biol. Chem. 1999. 274: 1295512958.
  • 35
    Inohara, N., Koseki, T., del Peso, L., Hu, Y., Yee, C., Chen, S., Carrio, R., Merino, J., Liu, D., Ni, J. and Nunez, G., Nod1, an Apaf-1-like activator of caspase-9 and nuclear factor-κB. J. Biol. Chem. 1999. 274: 1456014567.
  • 36
    Girardin, S. E., Tournebize, R., Mavris, M., Page, A. L., Li, X., Stark, G. R., Bertin, J., DiStefano, P. S., Yaniv, M., Sansonetti, P. J. and Philpott, D. J., CARD4/Nod1 mediates NF-κB and JNK activation by invasive Shigella flexneri. EMBORep. 2001. 2: 736742.
  • 37
    Ogura, Y., Inohara, N., Benito, A., Chen, F. F., Yamaoka, S. and Nunez, G., Nod2, a Nod1/Apaf-1 family member that is restricted to monocytes and activates NF-κB. J. Biol. Chem .2001. 276: 48124818.
  • 38
    Ogura, Y., Bonen, D. K., Inohara, N., Nicolae, D. L., Chen, F. F., Ramos, R., Britton, H., Moran, T., Karaliuskas, R., Duerr, R. H. et al., A frameshift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature 2001. 411: 603606.
  • 39
    Hugot, J. P., Chamaillard, M., Zouali, H., Lesage, S., Cezard, J. P., Belaiche, J., Almer, S., Tysk, C., O'Morain, C. A., Gassull, M. et al., Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature 2001. 411: 599603.
  • 40
    Chamaillard, M., Hashimoto, M., Horie, Y., Masumoto, J., Qiu, S., Saab, L., Ogura, Y., Kawasaki, A., Fukase, K., Kusumoto, S. et al., An essential role for NOD1 in host recognition of bacterial peptidoglycan containing diaminopimelic acid. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 702707.
  • 41
    Girardin, S. E., Boneca, I. G., Carneiro, L. A., Antignac, A., Jehanno, M., Viala, J., Tedin, K., Taha, M. K., Labigne, A., Zahringer, U. et al., Nod1 detects a unique muropeptide from gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan. Science 2003. 300: 15841587.
  • 42
    Girardin, S. E., Boneca, I. G., Viala, J., Chamaillard, M., Labigne, A., Thomas, G., Philpott, D. J. and Sansonetti, P. J., Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through muramyl dipeptide (MDP) detection. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 88698872.
  • 43
    Inohara, N., Ogura, Y., Fontalba, A., Gutierrez, O., Pons, F., Crespo, J., Fukase, K., Inamura, S., Kusumoto, S., Hashimoto, M. et al., Host recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide mediated through NOD2. Implications for Crohn's disease. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 55095512.
  • 44
    Girardin, S. E., Travassos, L. H., Herve, M., Blanot, D., Boneca, I. G., Philpott, D. J., Sansonetti, P. J. and Mengin-Lecreulx, D., Peptidoglycan molecular requirements allowing detection by Nod1 and Nod2. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 4170241708.
  • 45
    Chamaillard, M., Philpott, D., Girardin, S. E., Zouali, H., Lesage, S., Chareyre, F., Bui, T. H., Giovannini, M., Zaehringer, U., Penard-Lacronique, V. et al., Gene-environment interaction modulated by allelic heterogeneity in inflammatory diseases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 2003. 100: 34553460.
  • 46
    Girardin, S. E., Hugot, J. P. and Sansonetti, P. J., Lessons from Nod2 studies: towards a link etween Crohn's disease and bacterial sensing. Trends Immunol. 2003. 24: 652658.