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  • 1
    Bach, J. F., Regulatory T cells under scrutiny. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2003. 3: 189198.
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    Baecher-Allan, C., Viglietta, V. and Hafler, D. A., Human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Semin. Immunol. 2004. 16: 8998.
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    Shevach, E. M., CD4+ CD25+ suppressor T cells: more questions than answers. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 2: 389400.
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    Fontenot, J. D., Gavin, M. A. and Rudensky, A. Y., Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 330336.
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    Bennett, C. L., Christie, J., Ramsdell, F., Brunkow, M. E., Ferguson, P. J., Whitesell, L., Kelly, T. E., Saulsbury, F. T., Chance, P. F. and Ochs, H. D., The immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome (IPEX) is caused by mutations of FOXP3. Nat. Genet. 2001. 27: 2021.
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    Bennett, C. L., Brunkow, M. E., Ramsdell, F., O'Briant, K. C., Zhu, Q., Fuleihan, R. L., Shigeoka, A. O., Ochs, H. D. and Chance, P. F., A rare polyadenylation signal mutation of the FOXP3 gene (AAUAAA-->AAUGAA) leads to the IPEX syndrome. Immunogenetics 2001. 53: 435439.
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    Brunkow, M. E., Jeffery, E. W., Hjerrild, K. A., Paeper, B., Clark, L. B., Yasayko, S. A., Wilkinson, J. E., Galas, D., Ziegler, S. F. and Ramsdell, F., Disruption of a new forkhead/winged-helix protein, scurfin, results in the fatal lymphoproliferative disorder of the scurfy mouse. Nat. Genet. 2001. 27: 6873.
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    Ehrenstein, M. R., Evans, J. G., Singh, A., Moore, S., Warnes, G., Isenberg, D. A. and Mauri, C., Compromised function of regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis and reversal by anti-TNFalpha therapy. J. Exp. Med. 2004. 200: 277285.
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    Kukreja, A., Cost, G., Marker, J., Zhang, C., Sun, Z., Lin-Su, K., Ten, S., Sanz, M., Exley, M., Wilson, B., Porcelli, S. and Maclaren, N., Multiple immuno-regulatory defects in type-1 diabetes. J. Clin. Invest. 2002. 109: 131140.
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    Viguier, M., Lemaitre, F., Verola, O., Cho, M. S., Gorochov, G., Dubertret, L., Bachelez, H., Kourilsky, P. and Ferradini, L., Foxp3 expressing CD4+CD25(high) regulatory T cells are overrepresented in human metastatic melanoma lymph nodes and inhibit the function of infiltrating T cells. J. Immunol. 2004. 173: 14441453.
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    Stephens, L. A., Mottet, C., Mason, D. and Powrie, F., Human CD4(+)CD25(+) thymocytes and peripheral T cells have immune suppressive activity in vitro. Eur. J. Immunol. 2001. 31: 12471254.
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    Annunziato, F., Cosmi, L., Liotta, F., Lazzeri, E., Manetti, R., Vanini, V., Romagnani, P., Maggi, E. and Romagnani, S., Phenotype, localization, and mechanism of suppression of CD4(+)CD25(+) human thymocytes. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 196: 379387.
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    Bensinger, S. J., Bandeira, A., Jordan, M. S., Caton, A. J. and Laufer, T. M., Major histocompatibility complex class II-positive cortical epithelium mediates the selection of CD4(+)25(+) immunoregulatory T cells. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 194: 427438.
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    Apostolou, I., Sarukhan, A., Klein, L. and von Boehmer, H., Origin of regulatory T cells with known specificity for antigen. Nat. Immunol. 2002. 3: 756763.
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    Spits, H., Development of alphabeta T cells in the human thymus. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 2: 760772.
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    Cosmi, L., Liotta, F., Lazzeri, E., Francalanci, M., Angeli, R., Mazzinghi, B., Santarlasci, V., Manetti, R., Vanini, V., Romagnani, P., Maggi, E., Romagnani, S. and Annunziato, F., Human CD8+CD25+ thymocytes share phenotypic and functional features with CD4+CD25+ regulatory thymocytes. Blood 2003. 102: 41074114.
  • 17
    Takahata, Y., Nomura, A., Takada, H., Ohga, S., Furuno, K., Hikino, S., Nakayama, H., Sakaguchi, S. and Hara, T., CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells in human cord blood: an immunoregulatory subset with naive phenotype and specific expression of forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) gene. Exp. Hematol. 2004. 32: 622629.
  • 18
    Wing, K., Lindgren, S., Kollberg, G., Lundgren, A., Harris, R. A., Rudin, A., Lundin, S. and Suri-Payer, E., CD4 T cell activation by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is suppressed by adult but not cord blood CD25+ T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 2003. 33: 579587.
  • 19
    Taams, L. S., Vukmanovic-Stejic, M., Smith, J., Dunne, P. J., Fletcher, J. M., Plunkett, F. J., Ebeling, S. B., Lombardi, G., Rustin, M. H., Bijlsma, J. W., Lafeber, F. P., Salmon, M. and Akbar, A. N., Antigen-specific T cell suppression by human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 2002. 32: 16211630.
  • 20
    Pandey, A., Ozaki, K., Baumann, H., Levin, S. D., Puel, A., Farr, A. G., Ziegler, S. F., Leonard, W. J. and Lodish, H. F., Cloning of a receptor subunit required for signaling by thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Nat. Immunol. 2000. 1: 5964.
  • 21
    Wing, K., Ekmark, A., Karlsson, H., Rudin, A. and Suri-Payer, E., Characterization of human CD25+ CD4+ T cells in thymus, cord and adult blood. Immunology 2002. 106: 190199.
  • 22
    Dieckmann, D., Plottner, H., Berchtold, S., Berger, T. and Schuler, G., Ex vivo isolation and characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties from human blood. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 193: 13031310.
  • 23
    Baecher-Allan, C., Brown, J. A., Freeman, G. J. and Hafler, D. A., CD4+CD25high regulatory cells in human peripheral blood. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 12451253.
  • 24
    Jonuleit, H., Schmitt, E., Stassen, M., Tuettenberg, A., Knop, J. and Enk, A. H., Identification and functional characterization of human CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties isolated from peripheral blood. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 193: 12851294.
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    Lehmann, J., Huehn, J., de la Rosa, M., Maszyna, F., Kretschmer, U., Krenn, V., Brunner, M., Scheffold, A. and Hamann, A., Expression of the integrin alpha E beta 7 identifies unique subsets of CD25+ as well as CD25 regulatory T cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2002. 99: 1303113036.
  • 26
    Kasow, K. A., Chen, X., Knowles, J., Wichlan, D., Handgretinger, R. and Riberdy, J. M., Human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells share equally complex and comparable repertoires with CD4+CD25 counterparts. J. Immunol. 2004. 172: 61236128.
  • 27
    Stephens, G. L. and Ignatowicz, L., Decreasing the threshold for thymocyte activation biases CD4+ T cells toward a regulatory (CD4+CD25+) lineage. Eur. J. Immunol. 2003. 33: 12821291.
  • 28
    Lerman, M. A., Larkin, J., III, Cozzo, C., Jordan, M. S. and Caton, A. J., CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cell repertoire formation in response to varying expression of a neo-self-antigen. J. Immunol. 2004. 173: 236244.
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    Fontenot, J. D. and Rudensky, A. Y., Molecular aspects of regulatory T cell development. Semin. Immunol. 2004. 16: 7380.
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    Akbar, A. N., Taams, L. S., Salmon, M. and Vukmanovic-Stejic, M., The peripheral generation of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. Immunology 2003. 109: 319325.
  • 31
    Walker, M. R., Kasprowicz, D. J., Gersuk, V. H., Benard, A., Van Landeghen, M., Buckner, J. H. and Ziegler, S. F., Induction of FoxP3 and acquisition of T regulatory activity by stimulated human CD4+CD25 T cells. J. Clin. Invest. 2003. 112: 14371443.
  • 32
    Fisson, S., Darrasse-Jeze, G., Litvinova, E., Septier, F., Klatzmann, D., Liblau, R. and Salomon, B. L., Continuous activation of autoreactive CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in the steady state. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 198: 737746.
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    Miller, J. F. A. P. and Morahan, G., Peripheral T cell tolerance. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1992. 10: 5169.
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    Macian, F., Im, S. H., Garcia-Cozar, F. J. and Rao, A., T cell anergy. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2004. 16: 209216.
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    Levy-Lahad, E. and Wildin, R. S., Neonatal diabetes mellitus, enteropathy, thrombocytopenia, and endocrinopathy: Further evidence for an X-linked lethal syndrome. J. Pediatr. 2001. 138: 577580.
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    Gambineri, E., Torgerson, T. R. and Ochs, H. D., Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked inheritance (IPEX), a syndrome of systemic autoimmunity caused by mutations of FOXP3, a critical regulator of T cell homeostasis. Curr. Opin. Rheumatol. 2003. 15: 430435.
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    Wildin, R. S., Smyk-Pearson, S. and Filipovich, A. H., Clinical and molecular features of the immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome. J. Med. Genet. 2002. 39: 537545.
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    Wildin, R. S., Ramsdell, F., Peake, J., Faravelli, F., Casanova, J. L., Buist, N., Levy-Lahad, E., Mazzella, M., Goulet, O., Perroni, L. et al., X-linked neonatal diabetes mellitus, enteropathy and endocrinopathy syndrome is the human equivalent of mouse scurfy. Nat. Genet. 2001. 27: 1820.