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  • 1
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    Shevach, E. M., CD4+CD25+ suppressor T cells: More questions than answers. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 2: 389400.
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    Piccirillo, C. A. and Shevach, E. M., Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells: Central players in the arena of peripheral tolerance. Semin. Immunol. 2004. 16: 8188.
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    Gavin, M. and Rudensky, A., Control of immune homeostasis by naturally arising regulatory CD4+ T cells. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2003. 15: 690696.
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    Thornton, A. M. and Shevach, E. M., CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells suppress polyclonal T cell activation in vitro by inhibiting interleukin 2 production. J. Exp. Med. 1998. 188: 287296.
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    Thornton, A. M. and Shevach, E. M., Suppressor effector function of CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells is antigen nonspecific. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 183190.
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    Piccirillo, C. A. and Shevach, E. M., Control of CD8+ T cell activation by CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory cells. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 11371140.
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    Suri-Payer, E. and Cantor, H., Differential cytokine requirements for regulation of autoimmune gastritis and colitis by CD4+CD25+ T cells. J. Autoimmun. 2001. 16: 115123.
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    Asseman, C., Read, S. and Powrie, F., Colitogenic Th1 cells are present in the antigen-experienced T cell pool in normal mice: control by CD4+ regulatory T cells and IL-10. J. Immunol. 2003. 171: 971978.
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    Belkaid, Y., Piccirillo, C. A., Mendez, S., Shevach, E. M. and Sacks, D. L., CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity. Nature 2002. 420: 502507.
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    Letterio, J. J. and Roberts, A. B., Regulation of immune responses by TGF-β1. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1998. 16: 137161.
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    Kulkarni, A. B., Huh, C. G., Becker, D., Geiser, A., Lyght, M., Flanders, K. C., Roberts, A. B. et al., Transforming growth factor beta 1 null mutation in mice causes excessive inflammatory response and early death. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1993. 90: 770774.
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    Gorelik, L. and Flavell, R. A., Abrogation of TGF-β signaling in T cells leads to spontaneous T cell differentiation and autoimmune disease. Immunity 2000. 12: 171181.
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    Lucas, P. J., Kim, S. J., Melby, S. J. and Gress, R. E., Disruption of T cell homeostasis in mice expressing a T cell-specific dominant negative transforming growth factor beta II receptor. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 191: 11871196.
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    Yang, X., Letterio, J. J., Lechleider, R. J., Chen, L., Hayman, R., Gu, H., Roberts, A. B. and Deng, Y., Targeted disruption of SMAD3 results in impaired mucosal immunity and diminished T cell responsiveness to TGF-β. EMBO J. 1999. 18: 12801291.
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    Piccirillo, C. A., Letterio, J. J., Thornton, A. M., McHugh, R. S., Mamura, M., Mizuhara, H. and Shevach, E. M., CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells can mediate suppressor function in the absence of transforming growth factor beta1 production and responsiveness. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 196: 237246.
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    Shevach, E. M., McHugh, R. S., Piccirillo, C. A. and Thornton, A. M., Control of T-cell activation by CD4+CD25+ suppressor T cells. Immunol. Rev. 2001. 182: 5867.
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    Stephens, L. A., Mottet, C., Mason, D. and Powrie, F., Human CD4+CD25+ thymocytes and peripheral T cells have immune suppressive activity in vitro. Eur. J. Immunol. 2001. 31: 12471254.
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    Taams, L. S., Smith, J., Rustin, M. H., Salmon, M., Poulter, L. W. and Akbar, A. N., Human anergic/suppressive CD4+CD25+ T cells: a highly differentiated and apoptosis-prone population. Eur. J. Immunol. 2001. 31: 11221131.
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    Baecher-Allen, C., Brown, J. A., Freeman, G. J. and Hafler, D. A., CD4+CD25high regulatory cells in human peripheral blood. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 12451253.
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    Jonuleit, H., Schmitt, E., Stassen, M., Tuettenberg, A., Knop, J. and Enk, A. H., Identification and functional characterization of human CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties isolated from peripheral blood. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 193: 12851294.
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    Mamura, M., Lee, W., Sullivan, T. J., Felici, A., Sowers, A. L., Allison, J. P. and Letterio, J. J., CD28 disruption exacerbates inflammation in Tgf-beta1–/– mice: in vivo suppression by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells independent of autocrine TGF-beta1. Blood 2004. 103: 45944601.
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    Powrie, F., Carlino, J., Leach, M. W., Mauze, S. and Coffman, R. L., A critical role for transforming growth factor-beta but not interleukin 4 in the suppression of T helper type 1-mediated colitis by CD45RBlow CD4+ T cells. J. Exp. Med. 1996. 183: 26692674.
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    Read, S., Malmström, V. and Powrie F., Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 plays an essential role in the function of CD25+CD4+ regulatory cells that control intestinal inflammation. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 192: 295302.
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    Chen, M. L., Pittet, M. J., Gorelik, L., Flavell, R. A., Weissleder, R., von Boehmer, H. and Khazaie, K., Regulatory T cells suppress tumor-specific CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity through TGF-beta signals in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005. 102: 419424.
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    Piccirillo, C. A. and Thornton, A. M., Cornerstone of peripheral tolerance: naturally-occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Trends Immunol. 2004. 25: 374380.
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    McKarns, S. C., Schwartz, R. H. and Kaminski, N. E., Smad3 is essential for TGF-beta 1 to suppress IL-2 production and TCR-induced proliferation, but not IL-2-induced proliferation. J. Immunol. 2004. 172: 42754284.
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    Nakamura, K., Kitani, A. and Strober, W., Cell contact-dependent immunosuppression by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells is mediated by cell surface-bound transforming growth factor beta. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 194: 629644.
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    Nakamura, K., Kitani, A., Fuss, I., Pedersen, A., Harada, N., Nawata, H. and Strober, W., TGF-beta 1 plays an important role in the mechanism of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell activity in both humans and mice. J. Immunol. 2004. 172: 834842.
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    Green, E. A., Gorelik, L., McGregor, C. M., Tran, E. H. and Flavell, R. A., CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells control anti-islet CD8+ T cells through TGF-beta-TGF-beta receptor interactions in type 1 diabetes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2003. 100: 1087810883.
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    Huber, S., Schramm, C., Lehr, H. A., Mann, A., Schmitt, S., Becker, C., Protschka, M. et al., TGF-β signaling is required for the in vivo expansion and immunosuppressive capacity of regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells. J. Immunol. 2004. 173: 65266531.
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    Gorelick, L. and Flavell, R. A., Transforming growth factor-β in T cell biology. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 2: 4653.
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    Oida, T., Zhang, X., Goto, M., Hachimura, S., Totsuka, M., Kaminogawa, S. and Weiner, H., CD4+CD25 T cells that express latency-associated peptide on the surface suppress CD4+CD45RBhigh-induced colitis by a TGF-beta-dependent mechanism. J. Immunol. 2003. 170: 25162522.
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    Marie, J. C., Letterio, J. J., Gavin, M. and Rudensky, A. Y., TGF-beta1 maintains suppressor function and Foxp3 expression in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J. Exp. Med. 2005. 201: 10611067.
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    Fu, S., Zhang, N., Yopp, A. C., Chen, D., Mao, M., Chen, D., Zhang, H. et al., TGF-beta induces Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells from CD4+CD25 precursors. Am. J. Transplant. 2004. 4: 16141627.
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    Fantini, M. C., Becker, C., Monteleone, G., Pallone, F., Galle, P. R. and Neurath, M. F., TGF-beta induces a regulatory phenotype in CD4+CD25 T cells through Foxp3 induction and down-regulation of Smad7. J. Immunol. 2004. 172: 51495153.
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    Chen, Z. M., O'Shaughnessy, M. J., Gramaglia, I., Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A., Murphy, W. J., Narula, S., Roncarolo, M. G. and Blazar, B. R., IL-10 and TGF-beta induce alloreactive CD4+CD25 T cells to acquire regulatory cell function. Blood 2003. 10: 50765083.
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    Chen, W., Jin, W., Hardegen, N., Lei, K. J., Li, L., Marinos, N., McGrady, G. and Wahl, S. M., Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25 naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-beta induction of transcription factor Foxp3. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 198: 18751886.
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    Datto, M. B., Frederick, J. P., Pan, L., Borton, A. J., Zhuang, Y. and Wang, X. F., Targeted disruption of Smad3 reveals an essential role in transforming growth factor beta-mediated signal transduction. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1999. 19: 24952504.
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    Kullberg, M. C., Jankovic, D., Gorelick, P. L., Caspar, P., Letterio, J. J., Cheever, A. W. and Sher, A., Bacteria-triggered CD4+ T regulatory cells suppress Helicobacter hepaticus-induced colitis. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 196: 505515.
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    Autenrieth, I. B., Bucheler, N., Bohn, E., Heinze, G. and Horak, I., Cytokine mRNA expression in intestinal tissue of interleukin-2 deficient mice with bowel inflammation. Gut 1997. 41: 793800.