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  • 1
    Medzhitov, R., Toll-like receptors and innate immunity. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2001. 1: 135145.
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    Wagner, H., The immunobiology of the TLR9 subfamily. Trends Immunol. 2004. 25: 381386.
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    Iwasaki, A. and Medzhitov, R., Toll-like receptor control of the adaptive immune responses. Nat. Immunol. 2004. 5: 987995.
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    Komai-Koma, M., Jones, L., Ogg, G. S., Xu, D. and Liew, F. Y., TLR2 is expressed on activated T cells as a costimulatory receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2004. 101: 30293034.
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    Sobek, V., Birkner, N., Falk, I., Wurch, A., Kirschning, C. J., Wagner, H., Wallich, R. et al., Direct Toll-like receptor 2 mediated co-stimulation of T cells in the mouse system as a basis for chronic inflammatory joint disease. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2004. 6: R433–R446.
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    Hertz, C. J., Wu, Q., Porter, E. M., Zhang, Y. J., Weismuller, K. H., Godowski, P. J., Ganz, T. et al., Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on human tracheobronchial epithelial cells induces the antimicrobial peptide human beta defensin-2. J. Immunol. 2003. 171: 68206826.
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    Monick, M. M., Yarovinsky, T. O., Powers, L. S., Butler, N. S., Carter, A. B., Gudmundsson, G. and Hunninghake, G. W., Respiratory syncytial virus up-regulates TLR4 and sensitizes airway epithelial cells to endotoxin. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 5303553044.
  • 8
    Takeuchi, O., Hoshino, K. and Akira, S., Cutting edge: TLR2-deficient and MyD88-deficient mice are highly susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus infection. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 53925396.
  • 9
    Torres, D., Barrier, M., Bihl, F., Quesniaux, V. J., Maillet, I., Akira, S., Ryffel, B. and Erard, F., Toll-like receptor 2 is required for optimal control of Listeria monocytogenes infection. Infect. Immun. 2004. 72: 21312139.
  • 10
    Villamon, E., Gozalbo, D., Roig, P., O'Connor, J. E., Fradelizi, D. and Gil, M. L., Toll-like receptor-2 is essential in murine defenses against Candida albicans infections. Microbes Infect. 2004. 6: 17.
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    Nicolle, D., Fremond, C., Pichon, X., Bouchot, A., Maillet, I., Ryffel, B. and Quesniaux, V. J., Long-term control of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in the absence of Toll-like receptors (TLR): investigation of TLR2-, TLR6-, or TLR2-TLR4-deficient mice. Infect. Immun. 2004. 72: 69947004.
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    Abel, B., Thieblemont, N., Quesniaux, V. J., Brown, N., Mpagi, J., Miyake, K., Bihl, F. and Ryffel, B., Toll-like receptor 4 expression is required to control chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 31553162.
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    Ingalls, R. R., Rice, P. A., Qureshi, N., Takayama, K., Lin, J. S. and Golenbock, D. T., The inflammatory cytokine response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection is endotoxin mediated. Infect. Immun. 1995. 63: 31253130.
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    Prebeck, S., Brade, H., Kirschning, C. J., da Costa, C. P., Durr, S., Wagner, H. and Miethke, T., The Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis L(2) stimulates tumor necrosis factor secretion by innate immune cells independently of its endotoxin. Microbes Infect. 2003. 5: 463470.
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    Yang, Z. P., Cummings, P. K., Patton, D. L. and Kuo, C. C., Ultrastructural lung pathology of experimental Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonitis in mice. J. Infect. Dis. 1994. 170: 464467.
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    Al Younes, H. M., Rudel, T. and Meyer, T. F., Characterization and intracellular trafficking pattern of vacuoles containing Chlamydia pneumoniae in human epithelial cells. Cell Microbiol. 1999. 1: 237247.
  • 17
    Prebeck, S., Kirschning, C., Durr, S., da Costa, C., Donath, B., Brand, K., Redecke, V. et al., Predominant role of Toll-like receptor 2 versus 4 in Chlamydia pneumoniae-induced activation of dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 33163323.
  • 18
    Netea, M. G., Kullberg, B. J., Galama, J. M., Stalenhoef, A. F., Dinarello, C. A. and van der Meer, J. W., Non-LPS components of Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulate cytokine production through Toll-like receptor 2-dependent pathways. Eur. J. Immunol. 2002. 32: 11881195.
  • 19
    Rodriguez, N., Fend, F., Jennen, L., Schiemann, M., Wantia, N., da Costa, C. U., Durr, S. et al., Polymorphonuclear neutrophils improve replication of Chlamydia pneumoniaein vivo upon MyD88-dependent attraction. J. Immunol. 2005. 174: 48364844.
  • 20
    Naiki, Y., Michelsen, K. S., Schroder, N. W., Alsabeh, R., Slepenkin, A., Zhang, W., Chen, S. et al., MyD88 is pivotal for the early inflammatory response and subsequent bacterial clearance and survival in a mouse model of Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia. J. Biol. Chem. 2005. 280: 2924229249.
  • 21
    Amano, H., Morimoto, K., Senba, M., Wang, H., Ishida, Y., Kumatori, A., Yoshimine, H. et al., Essential contribution of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/C-C chemokine ligand-2 to resolution and repair processes in acute bacterial pneumonia. J. Immunol. 2004. 172: 398409.
  • 22
    Menten, P., Wuyts, A. and Van Damme, J., Macrophage inflammatory protein-1. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2002. 13: 455481.
  • 23
    Rottenberg, M. E., Gigliotti, R. A., Gigliotti, D., Svanholm, C., Bandholtz, L. and Wigzell, H., Role of innate and adaptive immunity in the outcome of primary infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, as analyzed in genetically modified mice. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 28292836.
  • 24
    Rottenberg, M. E., Gigliotti, R. A., Gigliotti, D., Ceausu, M., Une, C., Levitsky, V. and Wigzell, H., Regulation and role of IFN-gamma in the innate resistance to infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 48124818.
  • 25
    Geng, Y., Berencsi, K., Gyulai, Z., Valyi-Nagy, T., Gonczol, E. and Trinchieri, G., Roles of interleukin-12 and gamma interferon in murine Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Infect. Immun. 2000. 68: 22452253.
  • 26
    Netea, M. G., Kullberg, B. J., Jacobs, L. E., Verver-Jansen, T. J., van der Ven-Jongekrijg, J., Galama, J. M., Stalenhoef, A. F. et al., Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulates IFN-gamma synthesis through MyD88-dependent, TLR2- and TLR4-independent induction of IL-18 release. J. Immunol. 2004. 173: 14771482.
  • 27
    Mizgerd, J. P., Molecular mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment elicited by bacteria in the lungs. Semin. Immunol. 2002. 14: 123132.
  • 28
    van Zandbergen, G., Gieffers, J., Kothe, H., Rupp, J., Bollinger, A., Aga, E., Klinger, M. et al., Chlamydia pneumoniae multiply in neutrophil granulocytes and delay their spontaneous apoptosis. J. Immunol. 2004. 172: 17681776.