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    O'Neill, L. A., Signal transduction pathways activated by the IL-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor superfamily. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 2002. 270: 4761.
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    Alexopoulou, L., Holt, A. C., Medzhitov, R. and Flavell, R. A., Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3. Nature 2001. 413: 732738.
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    Levy, D. E. and Garcia-Sastre, A., The virus battles: IFN induction of the antiviral state and mechanisms of viral evasion. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2001. 12: 143156.
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    Yamamoto, M., Sato, S., Mori, K., Hoshino, K., Takeuchi, O., Takeda, K. and Akira, S., Cutting edge: A novel Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter that preferentially activates the IFN-beta promoter in the Toll-like receptor signaling. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 66686672.
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    Oshiumi, H., Matsumoto, M., Funami, K., Akazawa, T. and Seya, T., TICAM-1, an adaptor molecule that participates in Toll-like receptor 3-mediated interferon-beta induction. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 161167.
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    Hoebe, K., Du, X., Georgel, P., Janssen, E., Tabeta, K., Kim, S. O., Goode, J. et al., Identification of Lps2 as a key transducer of MyD88-independent TIR signalling. Nature 2003. 424: 743748.
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    Yamamoto, M., Sato, S., Hemmi, H., Hoshino, K., Kaisho, T., Sanjo, H., Takeuchi, O. et al., Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Science 2003. 301: 640643.
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    Jiang, Z., Mak, T. W., Sen, G. and Li, X., Toll-like receptor 3-mediated activation of NF-kappaB and IRF3 diverges at Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2004. 101: 35333538.
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    Han, K. J., Su, X., Xu, L. G., Bin, L. H., Zhang, J. and Shu, H. B., Mechanisms of the TRIF-induced interferon-stimulated response element and NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis pathways. J. Biol. Chem. 2004. 279: 1565215661.
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    Fitzgerald, K. A., McWhirter, S. M., Faia, K. L., Rowe, D. C., Latz, E., Golenbock, D. T., Coyle, A. J. et al., IKKepsilon and TBK1 are essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 491496.
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    Sharma, S., tenOever, B. R., Grandvaux, N., Zhou, G. P., Lin, R. and Hiscott, J., Triggering the interferon antiviral response through an IKK-related pathway. Science 2003. 300: 11481151.
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    Yoneyama, M., Suhara, W. and Fujita, T., Control of IRF-3 activation by phosphorylation. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002. 22: 7376.
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    Servant, M. J., Tenoever, B. and Lin, R., Overlapping and distinct mechanisms regulating IRF-3 and IRF-7 function. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002. 22: 4958.
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    Bin, L. H., Xu, L. G. and Shu, H. B., TIRP, a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapter protein involved in TIR signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 2452624532.
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    Fitzgerald, K. A., Rowe, D. C., Barnes, B. J., Caffrey, D. R., Visintin, A., Latz, E., Monks, B. et al., LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the Toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 198: 10431055.
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    Yamamoto, M., Sato, S., Hemmi, H., Uematsu, S., Hoshino, K., Kaisho, T., Takeuchi, O. et al., TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 11441150.
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    Wajant, H., Henkler, F. and Scheurich, P., The TNF-receptor-associated factor family: Scaffold molecules for cytokine receptors, kinases and their regulators. Cell. Signal. 2001. 13: 389400.
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    Chung, J. Y., Park, Y. C., Ye, H. and Wu, H., All TRAFs are not created equal: Common and distinct molecular mechanisms of TRAF-mediated signal transduction. J. Cell Sci. 2002. 115: 679688.
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    Henkler, F., Baumann, B., Fotin-Mleczek, M., Weingartner, M., Schwenzer, R., Peters, N., Graness, A. et al., Caspase-mediated cleavage converts the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-1 from a selective modulator of TNF receptor signaling to a general inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 2921629230.
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    Irmler, M., Steiner, V., Ruegg, C., Wajant, H. and Tschopp, J., Caspase-induced inactivation of the anti-apoptotic TRAF1 during Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis. FEBS Lett. 2000. 468: 129133.
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    Leo, E., Deveraux, Q. L., Buchholtz, C., Welsh, K., Matsuzawa, S., Stennicke, H. R., Salvesen, G. S. and Reed, J. C., TRAF1 is a substrate of caspases activated during tumor necrosis factor receptor-alpha-induced apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 2001. 276: 80878093.
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    Sweet, M. J., Leung, B. P., Kang, D., Sogaard, M., Schulz, K., Trajkovic, V., Campbell, C. C. et al., A novel pathway regulating lipopolysaccharide-induced shock by ST2/T1 via inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 expression. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 66336639.
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    Kobayashi, K., Hernandez, L. D., Galan, J. E., Janeway, C. A., Jr., Medzhitov, R. and Flavell, R. A., IRAK-M is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling. Cell 2002. 110: 191202.
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    Nakagawa, R., Naka, T., Tsutsui, H., Fujimoto, M., Kimura, A., Abe, T., Seki, E. et al., SOCS-1 participates in negative regulation of LPS responses. Immunity 2002. 17: 677687.
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    Wald, D., Qin, J., Zhao, Z., Qian, Y., Naramura, M., Tian, L., Towne, J. et al., SIGIRR, a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor-interleukin 1 receptor signaling. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 920927.
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    Wang, Y. Y., Li, L., Han, K., Zhai, Z. and Shu, H. B., A20 is a potent inhibitor of TLR3- and Sendai virus-induced activation of ISRE and IFNbeta promoter. FEBS Lett. 2004. 576: 8690.
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    Boone, D. L., Turer, E. E., Lee, E. G., Ahmad, R. C., Wheeler, M. T., Tsui, C., Hurley, P. et al., The ubiquitin-modifying enzyme A20 is required for termination of Toll-like receptor responses. Nat. Immunol. 2004. 5: 10521060.
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    Schwenzer, R., Siemienski, K., Liptay, S., Schubert, G., Peters, N., Scheurich, P., Schmid, R. M. and Wajant, H., The human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 1 gene (TRAF1) is up-regulated by cytokines of the TNF ligand family and modulates TNF-induced activation of NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 1999. 274: 1936819374.