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    Adkins, B. and Du, R. Q., Newborn mice develop balanced Th1/Th2 primary effector responses in vivo but are biased to Th2 secondary responses. J. Immunol. 1998. 160: 42174224.
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    Li, L., Lee, H. H., Bell, J. J., Gregg, R. K., Ellis, J. S., Gessner, A. and Zaghouani, H., IL-4 utilizes an alternative receptor to drive apoptosis of Th1 cells and skews neonatal immunity toward Th2. Immunity 2004. 20: 429440.
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    Kovarik, J., Bozzotti, P., Love-Homan, L., Pihlgren, M., Davis, H. L., Lambert, P. H., Krieg, A. M. and Siegrist, C. A., CpG oligodeoxynucleotides can circumvent the Th2 polarization of neonatal responses to vaccines but may fail to fully redirect Th2 responses established by neonatal priming. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 16111617.
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    Adkins, B. and Hamilton, K., Freshly isolated, murine neonatal T cells produce IL-4 in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. J. Immunol. 1992. 149: 34483455.
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    Adkins, B., Bu, Y. and Guevara, P., Murine neonatal CD4+ lymph node cells are highly deficient in the development of antigen-specific Th1 function in adoptive adult hosts. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 49985004.
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    Szabo, S. J., Kim, S. T., Costa, G. L., Zhang, X., Fathman, C. G. and Glimcher, L. H., A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment. Cell 2000. 100: 655669.
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    Kaplan, M. H., Schindler, U., Smiley, S. T. and Grusby, M. J., Stat6 is required for mediating responses to IL-4 and for development of Th2 cells. Immunity 1996. 4: 313319.
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    Kotanides, H. and Reich, N. C., Requirement of tyrosine phosphorylation for rapid activation of a DNA binding factor by IL-4. Science 1993. 262: 12651267.
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    Schindler, C., Kashleva, H., Pernis, A., Pine, R. and Rothman, P., STF-IL-4: a novel IL-4-induced signal transducing factor. EMBO J. 1994. 13: 13501356.
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    Kaplan, M. H., Whitfield, J. R., Boros, D. L. and Grusby, M. J., Th2 cells are required for the Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced granulomatous response. J. Immunol. 1998. 160: 18501856.
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    Urban, J. F., Jr., Noben-Trauth, N., Donaldson, D. D., Madden, K. B., Morris, S. C., Collins, M. and Finkelman, F. D., IL-13, IL-4Ralpha, and Stat6 are required for the expulsion of the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Immunity 1998. 8: 255264.
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    Stamm, L. M., Raisanen-Sokolowski, A., Okano, M., Russell, M. E., David, J. R. and Satoskar, A. R., Mice with STAT6-targeted gene disruption develop a Th1 response and control cutaneous leishmaniasis. J. Immunol. 1998. 161: 61806188.
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    Urban, J. F., Jr., Schopf, L., Morris, S. C., Orekhova, T., Madden, K. B., Betts, C. J., Gamble, H. R. et al., Stat6 signaling promotes protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis through a mast cell- and T cell-dependent mechanism. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 20462052.
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    Jankovic, D., Kullberg, M. C., Noben-Trauth, N., Caspar, P., Paul, W. E. and Sher, A., Single cell analysis reveals that IL-4 receptor/Stat6 signaling is not required for the in vivo or in vitro development of CD4+ lymphocytes with a Th2 cytokine profile. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 30473055.
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    Tarleton, R. L., Grusby, M. J. and Zhang, L., Increased susceptibility of Stat4-deficient and enhanced resistance in Stat6-deficient mice to infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 15201525.
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    Dent, A. L., Doherty, T. M., Paul, W. E., Sher, A. and Staudt, L. M., BCL-6-deficient mice reveal an IL-4-independent, STAT6-dependent pathway that controls susceptibility to infection by Leishmania major. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 20982103.
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    Neurath, M. F., Weigmann, B., Finotto, S., Glickman, J., Nieuwenhuis, E., Iijima, H., Mizoguchi, A. et al., The transcription factor T-bet regulates mucosal T cell activation in experimental colitis and Crohn's disease. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 195: 11291143.
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    Bettelli, E., Sullivan, B., Szabo, S. J., Sobel, R. A., Glimcher, L. H. and Kuchroo, V. K., Loss of T-bet, but not STAT1, prevents the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Exp. Med. 2004. 200: 7987.
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    Szabo, S. J., Sullivan, B. M., Stemmann, C., Satoskar, A. R., Sleckman, B. P. and Glimcher, L. H., Distinct effects of T-bet in TH1 lineage commitment and IFN-gamma production in CD4 and CD8 T cells. Science 2002. 295: 338342.
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    Finotto, S., Neurath, M. F., Glickman, J. N., Qin, S., Lehr, H. A., Green, F. H., Ackerman, K. et al., Development of spontaneous airway changes consistent with human asthma in mice lacking T-bet. Science 2002. 295: 336338.
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    Adkins, B., Williamson, T., Guevara, P. and Bu, Y., Murine neonatal lymphocytes show rapid early cell cycle entry and cell division. J. Immunol. 2003. 170: 45484556.
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    Adkins, B., Bu, Y., Cepero, E. and Perez, R., Exclusive Th2 primary effector function in spleens but mixed Th1/Th2 function in lymph nodes of murine neonates. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 23472353.
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    Donckier, V., Wissing, M., Bruyns, C., Abramowicz, D., Lybin, M., Vanderhaeghen, M. L. and Goldman, M., Critical role of interleukin 4 in the induction of neonatal transplantation tolerance. Transplantation 1995. 59: 15711576.
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    Chen, N., Gao, Q. and Field, E. H., Prevention of Th1 response is critical for tolerance. Transplantation 1996. 61: 10761083.
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    Inoue, Y., Konieczny, B. T., Wagener, M. E., McKenzie, A. N. and Lakkis, F. G., Failure to induce neonatal tolerance in mice that lack both IL-4 and IL- 13 but not in those that lack IL-4 alone. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 11251128.
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    Flamand, V., Donckier, V., Demoor, F. X., Le Moine, A., Matthys, P., Vanderhaeghen, M. L., Tagawa, Y. et al., CD40 ligation prevents neonatal induction of transplantation tolerance. J. Immunol. 1998. 160: 46664669.
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    Donckier, V., Abramowicz, D., Bruyns, C., Florquin, S., Vanderhaeghen, M. L., Amraoui, Z., Dubois, C. et al., IFN-gamma prevents Th2 cell-mediated pathology after neonatal injection of semiallogenic spleen cells in mice. J. Immunol. 1994. 153: 23612368.
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    Forsthuber, T., Yip, H. C. and Lehmann, P. V., Induction of TH1 and TH2 immunity in neonatal mice. Science 1996. 271: 17281730.
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    Donckier, V., Flamand, V., Desalle, F., Vanderhaeghen, M. L., de Veerman, M., Thielemans, K., Abramowicz, D. and Goldman, M., IL-12 prevents neonatal induction of transplantation tolerance in mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 1998. 28: 14261430.
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    Siegrist, C. A., Saddallah, F., Tougne, C., Martinez, X., Kovarik, J. and Lambert, P. H., Induction of neonatal TH1 and CTL responses by live viral vaccines: a role for replication patterns within antigen presenting cells? Vaccine 1998. 16: 14731478.
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    Martinez, X., Brandt, C., Saddallah, F., Tougne, C., Barrios, C., Wild, F., Dougan, G., Lambert, P. H. and Siegrist, C. A., DNA immunization circumvents deficient induction of T helper type 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in neonates and during early life. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1997. 94: 87268731.
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    Pack, C. D., Kumaraguru, U., Suvas, S. and Rouse, B. T., Heat-shock protein 70 acts as an effective adjuvant in neonatal mice and confers protection against challenge with herpes simplex virus. Vaccine 2005. 23: 35263534.
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    Siegrist, C. A., Neonatal and early life vaccinology. Vaccine 2001. 19: 33313346.
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    Hotchkiss, R. S., Swanson, P. E., Knudson, C. M., Chang, K. C., Cobb, J. P., Osborne, D. F., Zollner, K. M. et al., Overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases apoptosis and improves survival in sepsis. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 41484156.
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    Huang, H. and Paul, W. E., Impaired interleukin 4 signaling in T helper type 1 cells. J. Exp. Med. 1998. 187: 13051313.
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    Bradley, L. M., Yoshimoto, K. and Swain, S. L., The cytokines IL-4, IFN-gamma, and IL-12 regulate the development of subsets of memory effector helper T cells in vitro. J. Immunol. 1995. 155: 17131724.
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    Chang, H. C., Zhang, S. and Kaplan, M. H., Neonatal tolerance in the absence of Stat4- and Stat6-dependent Th cell differentiation. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 41244128.
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    Ouyang, W., Lohning, M., Gao, Z., Assenmacher, M., Ranganath, S., Radbruch, A. and Murphy, K. M., Stat6-independent GATA-3 autoactivation directs IL-4-independent Th2 development and commitment. Immunity 2000. 12: 2737.
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    Zhu, J., Min, B., Hu-Li, J., Watson, C. J., Grinberg, A., Wang, Q., Killeen, N. et al., Conditional deletion of Gata3 shows its essential function in T(H)1-T(H)2 responses. Nat. Immunol. 2004. 5: 11571165.
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    Adkins, B., Bu, Y. and Guevara, P., The generation of Th memory in neonates versus adults: prolonged primary Th2 effector function and impaired development of Th1 memory effector function in murine neonates. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 918925.
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    Adkins, B., Bu, Y., Vincek, V. and Guevara, P., The primary responses of murine neonatal lymph node CD4+ cells are Th2-skewed and are sufficient for the development of Th2-biased memory. Clin. Dev. Immunol. 2003. 10: 4351.