• 1
    Wills-Karp, M., Immunologic basis of antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1999. 17: 255281.
  • 2
    Del Prete, G. F., De Carli, M., D'Elios, M. M., Maestrelli, P., Ricci, M., Fabbri, L. and Romagnani, S., Allergen exposure induces the activation of allergen-specific Th2 cells in the airway mucosa of patients with allergic respiratory disorders. Eur. J. Immunol. 1993. 23: 14451449.
  • 3
    Robinson, D. S., Hamid, Q., Ying, S., Tsicopoulos, A., Barkans, J., Bentley, A. M., Corrigan, C. et al., Predominant Th2-like bronchoalveolar T-lymphocyte population in atopic asthma. N. Engl. J. Med. 1992. 326: 298304.
  • 4
    Walker, C., Bode, E., Boer, L., Hansel, T. T., Blaser, K. and Virchow, J. C., Jr., Allergic and nonallergic asthmatics have distinct patterns of T-cell activation and cytokine production in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992. 146: 109115.
  • 5
    Luster, A. D., Chemokines – chemotactic cytokines that mediate inflammation. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998. 338: 436445.
  • 6
    Heath, H., Qin, S., Rao, P., Wu, L., LaRosa, G., Kassam, N., Ponath, P. D. and Mackay, C. R., Chemokine receptor usage by human eosinophils. The importance of CCR3 demonstrated using an antagonistic monoclonal antibody. J. Clin. Invest. 1997. 99: 178184.
  • 7
    Garcia-Zepeda, E. A., Rothenberg, M. E., Ownbey, R. T., Celestin, J., Leder, P. and Luster, A. D., Human eotaxin is a specific chemoattractant for eosinophil cells and provides a new mechanism to explain tissue eosinophilia. Nat. Med. 1996. 2: 449456.
  • 8
    Garcia-Zepeda, E. A., Combadiere, C., Rothenberg, M. E., Sarafi, M. N., Lavigne, F., Hamid, Q., Murphy, P. M. and Luster, A. D., Human monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4 is a novel CC chemokine with activities on monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils induced in allergic and nonallergic inflammation that signals through the CC chemokine receptors (CCR)-2 and -3. J. Immunol. 1996. 157: 56135626.
  • 9
    Kitaura, M., Nakajima, T., Imai, T., Harada, S., Combadiere, C., Tiffany, H. L., Murphy, P. M. and Yoshie, O., Molecular cloning of human eotaxin, an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3. J. Biol. Chem. 1996. 271: 77257730.
  • 10
    Forssmann, U., Uguccioni, M., Loetscher, P., Dahinden, C. A., Langen, H., Thelen, M. and Baggiolini, M., Eotaxin-2, a novel CC chemokine that is selective for the chemokine receptor CCR3, and acts like eotaxin on human eosinophil and basophil leukocytes. J. Exp. Med. 1997. 185: 21712176.
  • 11
    Kitaura, M., Suzuki, N., Imai, T., Takagi, S., Suzuki, R., Nakajima, T., Hirai, K. et al., Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor 3. J. Biol. Chem. 1999. 274: 2797527980.
  • 12
    Shinkai, A., Yoshisue, H., Koike, M., Shoji, E., Nakagawa, S., Saito, A., Takeda, T. et al., A novel human CC chemokine, eotaxin-3, which is expressed in IL-4-stimulated vascular endothelial cells, exhibits potent activity toward eosinophils. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 16021610.
  • 13
    Teran, L. M., CCL chemokines and asthma. Immunol. Today 2000. 21: 235242.
  • 14
    Wenzel, S. E., Trudeau, J. B., Barnes, S., Zhou, X., Cundall, M., Westcott, J. Y., McCord, K. and Chu, H. W., TGF-beta and IL-13 synergistically increase eotaxin-1 production in human airway fibroblasts. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 46134619.
  • 15
    Sato, E., Nelson, D. K., Koyama, S., Hoyt, J. C. and Robbins, R. A., Inflammatory cytokines modulate eotaxin release by human lung fibroblast cell line. Exp. Lung Res. 2001. 27: 173183.
  • 16
    Nakamura, H., Luster, A. D., Tateno, H., Jedrzkiewicz, S., Tamura, G., Haley, K. J., Garcia-Zepeda, E. A. et al., IL-4 differentially regulates eotaxin and MCP-4 in lung epithelium and circulating mononuclear cells. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 2001. 281: L1288L1302.
  • 17
    Lilly, C. M., Nakamura, H., Kesselman, H., Nagler-Anderson, C., Asano, K., Garcia-Zepeda, E. A., Rothenberg, M. E. et al., Expression of eotaxin by human lung epithelial cells: Induction by cytokines and inhibition by glucocorticoids. J. Clin. Invest. 1997. 99: 17671773.
  • 18
    Fujisawa, T., Kato, Y., Atsuta, J., Terada, A., Iguchi, K., Kamiya, H., Yamada, H. et al., Chemokine production by the BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells: Differential regulation of eotaxin, IL-8, and RANTES by Th2- and Th1-derived cytokines. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2000. 105: 126133.
  • 19
    Rothenberg, M. E., MacLean, J. A., Pearlman, E., Luster, A. D. and Leder, P., Targeted disruption of the chemokine eotaxin partially reduces antigen-induced tissue eosinophilia. J. Exp. Med. 1997. 185: 785790.
  • 20
    Tomkinson, A., Duez, C., Cieslewicz, G. and Gelfand, E. W., Eotaxin-1-deficient mice develop airway eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2001. 126: 119125.
  • 21
    Watanabe, K., Jose, P. J. and Rankin, S. M., Eotaxin-2 generation is differentially regulated by lipopolysaccharide and IL-4 in monocytes and macrophages. J. Immunol. 2002. 168: 19111918.
  • 22
    Pope, S. M., Fulkerson, P. C., Blanchard, C., Akei, H. S., Nikolaidis, N. M., Zimmermann, N., Molkentin, J. D. and Rothenberg, M. E., Identification of a cooperative mechanism involving interleukin-13 and eotaxin-2 in experimental allergic lung inflammation. J. Biol. Chem. 2005. 280: 1395213961.
  • 23
    Komiya, A., Nagase, H., Yamada, H., Sekiya, T., Yamaguchi, M., Sano, Y., Hanai, N. et al., Concerted expression of eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2, and eotaxin-3 in human bronchial epithelial cells. Cell. Immunol. 2003. 225: 91100.
  • 24
    Yamamoto, S., Kobayashi, I., Tsuji, K., Nishi, N., Muro, E., Miyazaki, M., Zaitsu, M. et al., Upregulation of interleukin-4 receptor by interferon-gamma: Enhanced interleukin-4-induced eotaxin-3 production in airway epithelium. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 2004. 31: 456462.
  • 25
    Heiman, A. S., Abonyo, B. O., Darling-Reed, S. F. and Alexander, M. S., Cytokine-stimulated human lung alveolar epithelial cells release eotaxin-2 (CCL24) and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 2005. 25: 8291.
  • 26
    Lamkhioued, B., Garcia-Zepeda, E. A., Abi-Younes, S., Nakamura, H., Jedrzkiewicz, S., Wagner, L., Renzi, P. M. et al., Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4 expression in the airways of patients with asthma. Induction in epithelial cells and mononuclear cells by proinflammatory cytokines. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2000. 162: 723732.
  • 27
    Matsukura, S., Stellato, C., Plitt, J. R., Bickel, C., Miura, K., Georas, S. N., Casolaro, V. and Schleimer, R. P., Activation of eotaxin gene transcription by NF-kappa B and STAT6 in human airway epithelial cells. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 68766883.
  • 28
    Blanchard, C., Wang, N., Stringer, K. F., Mishra, A., Fulkerson, P. C., Abonia, J. P., Jameson, S. C. et al., Eotaxin-3 and a uniquely conserved gene-expression profile in eosinophilic esophagitis. J. Clin. Invest. 2006. 116: 536547.
  • 29
    Berkman, N., Ohnona, S., Chung, F. K. and Breuer, R., Eotaxin-3 but not eotaxin gene expression is upregulated in asthmatics 24 hours after allergen challenge. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 2001. 24: 682687.
  • 30
    Cuvelier, S. L. and Patel, K. D., Shear-dependent eosinophil transmigration on interleukin 4-stimulated endothelial cells: A role for endothelium-associated eotaxin-3. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 194: 16991709.
  • 31
    Handel, T. M., Johnson, Z., Crown, S. E., Lau, E. K. and Proudfoot, A. E., Regulation of protein function by glycosaminoglycans – as exemplified by chemokines. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2005. 74: 385410.
  • 32
    Proudfoot, A. E., Handel, T. M., Johnson, Z., Lau, E. K., LiWang, P., Clark-Lewis, I., Borlat, F. et al., Glycosaminoglycan binding and oligomerization are essential for the in vivo activity of certain chemokines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2003. 100: 18851890.
  • 33
    Johnson, Z., Kosco-Vilbois, M. H., Herren, S., Cirillo, R., Muzio, V., Zaratin, P., Carbonatto, M. et al., Interference with heparin binding and oligomerization creates a novel anti-inflammatory strategy targeting the chemokine system. J. Immunol. 2004. 173: 57765785.
  • 34
    Wang, L., Fuster, M., Sriramarao, P. and Esko, J. D., Endothelial heparan sulfate deficiency impairs L-selectin- and chemokine-mediated neutrophil trafficking during inflammatory responses. Nat. Immunol. 2005. 6: 902910.
  • 35
    Halden, Y., Rek, A., Atzenhofer, W., Szilak, L., Wabnig, A. and Kungl, A. J., Interleukin-8 binds to syndecan-2 on human endothelial cells. Biochem. J. 2004. 377: 533538.
  • 36
    Stellato, C., Brummet, M. E., Plitt, J. R., Shahabuddin, S., Baroody, F. M., Liu, M. C., Ponath, P. D. and Beck, L. A., Expression of the C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 in human airway epithelial cells. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 14571461.
  • 37
    Kaplan, M. H., Schindler, U., Smiley, S. T. and Grusby, M. J., STAT6 is required for mediating responses to IL-4 and for development of Th2 cells. Immunity 1996. 4: 313319.
  • 38
    Akimoto, T., Numata, F., Tamura, M., Takata, Y., Higashida, N., Takashi, T., Takeda, K. and Akira, S., Abrogation of bronchial eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)6-deficient mice. J. Exp. Med. 1998. 187: 15371542.
  • 39
    Tomkinson, A., Kanehiro, A., Rabinovitch, N., Joetham, A., Cieslewicz, G. and Gelfand, E. W., The failure of STAT6-deficient mice to develop airway eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness is overcome by interleukin-5. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1999. 160: 12831291.
  • 40
    Mathew, A., MacLean, J. A., DeHaan, E., Tager, A. M., Green, F. H. and Luster, A. D., Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 controls chemokine production and T helper cell type 2 cell trafficking in allergic pulmonary inflammation. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 193: 10871096.
  • 41
    Hoeck, J. and Woisetschlager, M., Activation of eotaxin-3/CCLl26 gene expression in human dermal fibroblasts is mediated by STAT6. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 32163222.
  • 42
    Yuan, Q., Austen, K. F., Friend, D. S., Heidtman, M. and Boyce, J. A., Human peripheral blood eosinophils express a functional c-kit receptor for stem cell factor that stimulates very late antigen 4 (VLA-4)-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). J. Exp. Med. 1997. 186: 313323.
  • 43
    Bromley, S. K., Thomas, S. Y. and Luster, A. D., Chemokine receptor CCR7 guides T cell exit from peripheral tissues and entry into afferent lymphatics. Nat. Immunol. 2005. 6: 895901.
  • 44
    Campanella, G. S., Lee, E. M., Sun, J. and Luster, A. D., CXCR3 and heparin binding sites of the chemokine IP-10 (CXCL10). J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 1706617074.