• 1
    Penninger, J. M. and Bachmaier, K., Review of microbial infections and the immune response to cardiac antigens. J. Infect. Dis. 2000. 181 Suppl 3: S498504.
  • 2
    Neu, N., Rose, N. R., Beisel, K. W., Herskowitz, A., Gurri-Glass, G. and Craig, S. W., Cardiac myosin induces myocarditis in genetically predisposed mice. J. Immunol. 1987. 139: 36303636.
  • 3
    Pummerer, C. L., Luze, K., Grassl, G., Bachmaier, K., Offner, F., Burrell, S. K., Lenz, D. M. et al., Identification of cardiac myosin peptides capable of inducing autoimmune myocarditis in BALB/c mice. J. Clin. Invest. 1996. 97: 20572062.
  • 4
    Eriksson, U., Kurrer, M. O., Sonderegger, I., Iezzi, G., Tafuri, A., Hunziker, L., Suzuki, S. et al., Activation of dendritic cells through the interleukin 1 receptor 1 is critical for the induction of autoimmune myocarditis. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 197: 323331.
  • 5
    Eriksson, U., Ricci, R., Hunziker, L., Kurrer, M. O., Oudit, G. Y., Watts, T. H., Sonderegger, I. et al., Dendritic cell-induced autoimmune heart failure requires cooperation between adaptive and innate immunity. Nat. Med. 2003. 9: 14841490.
  • 6
    Bachmaier, K., Pummerer, C., Kozieradzki, I., Pfeffer, K., Mak, T. W., Neu, N. and Penninger, J. M., Low-molecular-weight tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 controls induction of autoimmune heart disease. Circulation 1997. 95: 655661.
  • 7
    Eriksson, U., Kurrer, M. O., Schmitz, N., Marsch, S. C., Fontana, A., Eugster, H. P. and Kopf, M., Interleukin-6-deficient mice resist development of autoimmune myocarditis associated with impaired upregulation of complement C3. Circulation 2003. 107: 320325.
  • 8
    Afanasyeva, M., Wang, Y., Kaya, Z., Stafford, E. A., Dohmen, K. M., Sadighi Akha, A. A. and Rose, N. R., Interleukin-12 receptor/STAT4 signaling is required for the development of autoimmune myocarditis in mice by an interferon-gamma-independent pathway. Circulation 2001. 104: 31453151.
  • 9
    Eriksson, U., Kurrer, M. O., Sebald, W., Brombacher, F. and Kopf, M., Dual role of the IL-12/IFN-gamma axis in the development of autoimmune myocarditis: induction by IL-12 and protection by IFN-gamma. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 54645469.
  • 10
    Cua, D. J., Sherlock, J., Chen, Y., Murphy, C. A., Joyce, B., Seymour, B., Lucian, L. et al., Interleukin-23 rather than interleukin-12 is the critical cytokine for autoimmune inflammation of the brain. Nature 2003. 421: 744748.
  • 11
    Murphy, C. A., Langrish, C. L., Chen, Y., Blumenschein, W., McClanahan, T., Kastelein, R. A., Sedgwick, J. D. and Cua, D. J., Divergent pro- and antiinflammatory roles for IL-23 and IL-12 in joint autoimmune inflammation. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 198: 19511957.
  • 12
    Aggarwal, S., Ghilardi, N., Xie, M. H., de Sauvage, F. J. and Gurney, A. L., Interleukin-23 promotes a distinct CD4 T cell activation state characterized by the production of interleukin-17. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 19101914.
  • 13
    Harrington, L. E., Hatton, R. D., Mangan, P. R., Turner, H., Murphy, T. L., Murphy, K. M. and Weaver, C. T., Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages. Nat. Immunol. 2005. 6: 11231132.
  • 14
    Park, H., Li, Z., Yang, X. O., Chang, S. H., Nurieva, R., Wang, Y. H., Wang, Y. et al., A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17. Nat. Immunol. 2005. 6: 11331141.
  • 15
    Langrish, C. L., Chen, Y., Blumenschein, W. M., Mattson, J., Basham, B., Sedgwick, J. D., McClanahan, T. et al., IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation. J. Exp. Med. 2005. 201: 233240.
  • 16
    Chen, Y., Langrish, C. L., McKenzie, B., Joyce-Shaikh, B., Stumhofer, J. S., McClanahan, T., Blumenschein, W. et al., Anti-IL-23 therapy inhibits multiple inflammatory pathways and ameliorates autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Clin. Invest. 2006. 116: 13171326.
  • 17
    Yen, D., Cheung, J., Scheerens, H., Poulet, F., McClanahan, T., McKenzie, B., Kleinschek, M. A. et al., IL-23 is essential for T cell-mediated colitis and promotes inflammation via IL-17 and IL-6. J. Clin. Invest. 2006. 116: 13101316.
  • 18
    Bettelli, E. and Kuchroo, V. K., IL-12- and IL-23-induced T helper cell subsets: birds of the same feather flock together. J. Exp. Med. 2005. 201: 169171.
  • 19
    Bettelli, E., Carrier, Y., Gao, W., Korn, T., Strom, T. B., Oukka, M., Weiner, H. L. and Kuchroo, V. K., Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells. Nature 2006. 441: 235238.
  • 20
    Dong, C., Diversification of T-helper-cell lineages: finding the family root of IL-17-producing cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2006. 6: 329333.
  • 21
    Veldhoen, M., Hocking, R. J., Atkins, C. J., Locksley, R. M. and Stockinger, B., TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells. Immunity 2006. 24: 179189.
  • 22
    Mangan, P. R., Harrington, L. E., O'Quinn, D. B., Helms, W. S., Bullard, D. C., Elson, C. O., Hatton, R. D. et al., Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(H)17 lineage. Nature 2006. 441: 231234.
  • 23
    Bachmann, M. F. and Dyer, M. R., Therapeutic vaccination for chronic diseases: a new class of drugs in sight. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2004. 3: 8188.
  • 24
    Spohn, G., Schwarz, K., Maurer, P., Illges, H., Rajasekaran, N., Choi, Y., Jennings, G. T. and Bachmann, M. F., Protection against osteoporosis by active immunization with TRANCE/RANKL displayed on virus-like particles. J. Immunol. 2005. 175: 62116218.
  • 25
    Jegerlehner, A., Tissot, A., Lechner, F., Sebbel, P., Erdmann, I., Kundig, T., Bachi, T. et al., A molecular assembly system that renders antigens of choice highly repetitive for induction of protective B cell responses. Vaccine 2002. 20: 31043112.
  • 26
    Camoglio, L., te Velde, A. A., de Boer, A., ten Kate, F. J., Kopf, M. and van Deventer, S. J., Hapten-induced colitis associated with maintained Th1 and inflammatory responses in IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 2000. 30: 14861495.
  • 27
    Willenborg, D. O., Fordham, S., Bernard, C. C., Cowden, W. B. and Ramshaw, I. A., IFN-gamma plays a critical down-regulatory role in the induction and effector phase of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Immunol. 1996. 157: 32233227.
  • 28
    Komiyama, Y., Nakae, S., Matsuki, T., Nambu, A., Ishigame, H., Kakuta, S., Sudo, K. and Iwakura, Y., IL-17 plays an important role in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Immunol. 2006. 177: 566573.
  • 29
    Langrish, C. L., McKenzie, B. S., Wilson, N. J., de Waal Malefyt, R., Kastelein, R. A. and Cua, D. J., IL-12 and IL-23: master regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. Immunol. Rev. 2004. 202: 96105.
  • 30
    Gran, B., Zhang, G. X., Yu, S., Li, J., Chen, X. H., Ventura, E. S., Kamoun, M. and Rostami, A., IL-12p35-deficient mice are susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: evidence for redundancy in the IL-12 system in the induction of central nervous system autoimmune demyelination. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 71047110.
  • 31
    McMahon, E. J., Bailey, S. L., Castenada, C. V., Waldner, H. and Miller, S. D., Epitope spreading initiates in the CNS in two mouse models of multiple sclerosis. Nat. Med. 2005. 11: 335339.
  • 32
    Nakae, S., Nambu, A., Sudo, K. and Iwakura, Y., Suppression of immune induction of collagen-induced arthritis in IL-17-deficient mice. J. Immunol. 2003. 171: 61736177.
  • 33
    Lubberts, E., Koenders, M. I., Oppers-Walgreen, B., van den Bersselaar, L., Coenen-de Roo, C. J., Joosten, L. A. and van den Berg, W. B., Treatment with a neutralizing anti-murine interleukin-17 antibody after the onset of collagen-induced arthritis reduces joint inflammation, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion. Arthritis Rheum. 2004. 50: 650659.
  • 34
    Eriksson, U., Kurrer, M. O., Bingisser, R., Eugster, H. P., Saremaslani, P., Follath, F., Marsch, S. and Widmer, U., Lethal autoimmune myocarditis in interferon-gamma receptor-deficient mice: enhanced disease severity by impaired inducible nitric oxide synthase induction. Circulation 2001. 103: 1821.
  • 35
    Chackerian, B., Lowy, D. R. and Schiller, J. T., Conjugation of a self-antigen to papillomavirus-like particles allows for efficient induction of protective autoantibodies. J. Clin. Invest. 2001. 108: 415423.
  • 36
    Hertz, M., Mahalingam, S., Dalum, I., Klysner, S., Mattes, J., Neisig, A., Mouritsen, S. et al., Active vaccination against IL-5 bypasses immunological tolerance and ameliorates experimental asthma. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 37923799.
  • 37
    Dalum, I., Butler, D. M., Jensen, M. R., Hindersson, P., Steinaa, L., Waterston, A. M., Grell, S. N. et al., Therapeutic antibodies elicited by immunization against TNF-alpha. Nat. Biotechnol. 1999. 17: 666669.
  • 38
    Richard, M., Grencis, R. K., Humphreys, N. E., Renauld, J. C. and Van Snick, J., Anti-IL-9 vaccination prevents worm expulsion and blood eosinophilia in Trichuris muris-infected mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2000. 97: 767772.
  • 39
    Zhu, C., Rao, K., Xiong, H., Gagnidze, K., Li, F., Horvath, C. and Plevy, S., Activation of the murine interleukin-12 p40 promoter by functional interactions between NFAT and ICSBP. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278: 3937239382.
  • 40
    Magram, J., Connaughton, S. E., Warrier, R. R., Carvajal, D. M., Wu, C. Y., Ferrante, J., Stewart, C. et al., IL-12-deficient mice are defective in IFN gamma production and type 1 cytokine responses. Immunity 1996. 4: 471481.
  • 41
    Camoglio, L., Juffermans, N. P., Peppelenbosch, M., te Velde, A. A., ten Kate, F. J., van Deventer, S. J. and Kopf, M., Contrasting roles of IL-12p40 and IL-12p35 in the development of hapten-induced colitis. Eur. J. Immunol. 2002. 32: 261269.