• 1
    Winkelstein, J. A., Marino, M. C., Johnston, R. B., Jr., Boyle, J., Curnutte, J., Gallin, J. I., Malech, H. L. et al., Chronic granulomatous disease. Report on a national registry of 368 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 2000. 79: 155169.
  • 2
    Bylund, J., Goldblatt, D. and Speert, D. P., Chronic granulomatous disease: from genetic defect to clinical presentation. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2005. 568: 6787.
  • 3
    Gallin, J. I. and Buescher, E. S., Abnormal regulation of inflammatory skin responses in male patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Inflammation 1983. 7: 227232.
  • 4
    Segal, B. H., Leto, T. L., Gallin, J. I., Malech, H. L. and Holland, S. M., Genetic, biochemical, and clinical features of chronic granulomatous disease. Medicine (Baltimore) 2000. 79: 170200.
  • 5
    Jackson, S. H., Gallin, J. I. and Holland, S. M., The p47phox mouse knock-out model of chronic granulomatous disease. J. Exp. Med. 1995. 182: 751758.
  • 6
    Morgenstern, D. E., Gifford, M. A., Li, L. L., Doerschuk, C. M. and Dinauer, M. C., Absence of respiratory burst in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease mice leads to abnormalities in both host defense and inflammatory response to Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Exp. Med. 1997. 185: 207218.
  • 7
    Pollock, J. D., Williams, D. A., Gifford, M. A., Li, L. L., Du, X., Fisherman, J., Orkin, S. H. et al., Mouse model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited defect in phagocyte superoxide production. Nat. Genet 1995. 9: 202209.
  • 8
    Kopp, E. and Medzhitov, R., Recognition of microbial infection by Toll-like receptors. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2003. 15: 396401.
  • 9
    Ghosh, S., May, M. J. and Kopp, E. B., NF-kappa B and Rel proteins: evolutionarily conserved mediators of immune responses. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1998. 16: 225260.
  • 10
    Natoli, G., Saccani, S., Bosisio, D. and Marazzi, I., Interactions of NF-kappaB with chromatin: the art of being at the right place at the right time. Nat. Immunol 2005. 6: 439445.
  • 11
    Kabe, Y., Ando, K., Hirao, S., Yoshida, M. and Handa, H., Redox regulation of NF-kappaB activation: distinct redox regulation between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2005. 7: 395403.
  • 12
    Asehnoune, K., Strassheim, D., Mitra, S., Kim, J. Y. and Abraham, E., Involvement of reactive oxygen species in toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of NF-kappaB. J. Immunol. 2004. 172: 25222529.
  • 13
    Fan, J., Frey, R. S. and Malik, A. B., TLR4 signaling induces TLR2 expression in endothelial cells via neutrophil NADPH oxidase. J. Clin. Invest. 2003. 112: 12341243.
  • 14
    Flohe, L., Brigelius-Flohe, R., Saliou, C., Traber, M. G. and Packer, L., Redox regulation of NF-kappa B activation. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1997. 22: 11151126.
  • 15
    Sadikot, R. T., Zeng, H., Yull, F. E., Li, B., Cheng, D. S., Kernodle, D. S., Jansen, E. D. et al., p47(phox) deficiency impairs NF-kappaB activation and host defense in Pseudomonas pneumonia. J. Immunol. 2004. 172: 18011808.
  • 16
    Yoshida, M., Korfhagen, T. R. and Whitsett, J. A., Surfactant protein D regulates NF-kappa B and matrix metalloproteinase production in alveolar macrophages via oxidant-sensitive pathways. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 75147519.
  • 17
    Schreck, R., Meier, B., Mannel, D. N., Droge, W. and Baeuerle, P. A., Dithiocarbamates as potent inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa B activation in intact cells. J. Exp. Med. 1992. 175: 11811194.
  • 18
    Matsunaga, T., Hokari, S., Koyama, I., Harada, T. and Komoda, T., NF-kappa B activation in endothelial cells treated with oxidized high-density lipoprotein. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003. 303: 313319.
  • 19
    Park, J., Choi, K., Jeong, E., Kwon, D., Benveniste, E. N. and Choi, C., Reactive oxygen species mediate chloroquine-induced expression of chemokines by human astroglial cells. Glia 2004. 47: 920.
  • 20
    Yu, J. H., Lim, J. W., Kim, H. and Kim, K. H., NADPH oxidase mediates interleukin-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2005. 37: 14581469.
  • 21
    Dahlgren, C. and Karlsson, A., Respiratory burst in human neutrophils. J. Immunol. Methods 1999. 232: 314.
  • 22
    Henkel, T., Machleidt, T., Alkalay, I., Kronke, M., Ben-Neriah, Y. and Baeuerle, P. A., Rapid proteolysis of I kappa B-alpha is necessary for activation of transcription factor NF-kappa B. Nature 1993. 365: 182185.
  • 23
    Magnani, M., Crinelli, R., Bianchi, M. and Antonelli, A., The ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system and other potential targets for the modulation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB). Curr. Drug Targets 2000. 1: 387399.
  • 24
    Takada, Y., Singh, S. and Aggarwal, B. B., Identification of a p65 peptide that selectively inhibits NF-kappa B activation induced by various inflammatory stimuli and its role in down-regulation of NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression and up-regulation of apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 2004. 279: 1509615104.
  • 25
    Curnutte, J. T., Chronic granulomatous disease: the solving of a clinical riddle at the molecular level. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1993. 67: S215.
  • 26
    Tintinger, G. R., Theron, A. J., Steel, H. C. and Anderson, R., Accelerated calcium influx and hyperactivation of neutrophils in chronic granulomatous disease. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2001. 123: 254263.
  • 27
    Kasahara, Y., Iwai, K., Yachie, A., Ohta, K., Konno, A., Seki, H., Miyawaki, T. et al., Involvement of reactive oxygen intermediates in spontaneous and CD95 (Fas/APO-1)-mediated apoptosis of neutrophils. Blood 1997. 89: 17481753.
  • 28
    Bylund, J., Campsall, P. A., Ma, R. C., Conway, B. A. and Speert, D. P., Burkholderia cenocepacia induces neutrophil necrosis in chronic granulomatous disease. J. Immunol. 2005. 174: 35623569.
  • 29
    Hampton, M. B., Vissers, M. C., Keenan, J. I. and Winterbourn, C. C., Oxidant-mediated phosphatidylserine exposure and macrophage uptake of activated neutrophils: possible impairment in chronic granulomatous disease. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2002. 71: 775781.
  • 30
    Brown, J. R., Goldblatt, D., Buddle, J., Morton, L. and Thrasher, A. J., Diminished production of anti-inflammatory mediators during neutrophil apoptosis and macrophage phagocytosis in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). J. Leukoc. Biol. 2003. 73: 591599.
  • 31
    Asea, A., Hansson, M., Czerkinsky, C., Houze, T., Hermodsson, S., Strannegard, O. and Hellstrand, K., Histaminergic regulation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by human natural killer (NK) cells. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1996. 105: 376382.
  • 32
    Olofsson, P., Holmberg, J., Tordsson, J., Lu, S., Akerstrom, B. and Holmdahl, R., Positional identification of Ncf1 as a gene that regulates arthritis severity in rats. Nat. Genet 2003. 33: 2532.
  • 33
    Gelderman, K. A., Hultqvist, M., Holmberg, J., Olofsson, P. and Holmdahl, R., T cell surface redox levels determine T cell reactivity and arthritis susceptibility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006. 103: 1283112836.
  • 34
    Beutler, B., Hoebe, K., Du, X. and Ulevitch, R. J., How we detect microbes and respond to them: the Toll-like receptors and their transducers. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2003. 74: 479485.
  • 35
    Shrivastava, A. and Aggarwal, B. B., Antioxidants differentially regulate activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, activator protein-1, c-jun amino-terminal kinases, and apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor: evidence that JNK and NF-kappa B activation are not linked to apoptosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 1999. 1: 181191.
  • 36
    Bowie, A. and O'Neill, L. A., Oxidative stress and nuclear factor-kappaB activation: a reassessment of the evidence in the light of recent discoveries. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2000. 59: 1323.
  • 37
    Hayakawa, M., Miyashita, H., Sakamoto, I., Kitagawa, M., Tanaka, H., Yasuda, H., Karin, M. et al., Evidence that reactive oxygen species do not mediate NF-kappaB activation. EMBO J. 2003. 22: 33563366.
  • 38
    Warris, A., Netea, M. G., Wang, J. E., Gaustad, P., Kullberg, B. J., Verweij, P. E. and Abrahamsen, T. G., Cytokine release in healthy donors and patients with chronic granulomatous disease upon stimulation with Aspergillus fumigatus. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 2003. 35: 482487.
  • 39
    Hatanaka, E., Carvalho, B. T., Condino-Neto, A. and Campa, A., Hyperresponsiveness of neutrophils from gp 91phox deficient patients to lipopolysaccharide and serum amyloid A. Immunol. Lett. 2004. 94: 4346.
  • 40
    Lekstrom-Himes, J. A., Kuhns, D. B., Alvord, W. G. and Gallin, J. I., Inhibition of human neutrophil IL-8 production by hydrogen peroxide and dysregulation in chronic granulomatous disease. J. Immunol. 2005. 174: 411417.
  • 41
    Kobayashi, S. D., Voyich, J. M., Braughton, K. R., Whitney, A. R., Nauseef, W. M., Malech, H. L. and DeLeo, F. R., Gene expression profiling provides insight into the pathophysiology of chronic granulomatous disease. J. Immunol. 2004. 172: 636643.
  • 42
    Levine, S., Smith, V. V., Malone, M. and Sebire, N. J., Histopathological features of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) in childhood. Histopathology 2005. 47: 508516.
  • 43
    Schappi, M. G., Klein, N. J., Lindley, K. J., Rampling, D., Smith, V. V., Goldblatt, D. and Milla, P. J., The nature of colitis in chronic granulomatous disease. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 2003. 36: 623631.
  • 44
    Zenz, R., Eferl, R., Kenner, L., Florin, L., Hummerich, L., Mehic, D., Scheuch, H. et al., Psoriasis-like skin disease and arthritis caused by inducible epidermal deletion of Jun proteins. Nature 2005. 437: 369375.
  • 45
    Liu, H., Colavitti, R., Rovira, II and Finkel, T., Redox-dependent transcriptional regulation. Circ. Res. 2005. 97: 967974.
  • 46
    Iles, K. E., Dickinson, D. A., Watanabe, N., Iwamoto, T. and Forman, H. J., AP-1 activation through endogenous H(2)O(2) generation by alveolar macrophages. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2002. 32: 13041313.
  • 47
    Tollerud, D. J., Clark, J. W., Brown, L. M., Neuland, C. Y., Pankiw-Trost, L. K., Blattner, W. A. and Hoover, R. N., The influence of age, race, and gender on peripheral blood mononuclear-cell subsets in healthy nonsmokers. J. Clin. Immunol. 1989. 9: 214222.
  • 48
    Peters, R. E. and al-Ismail, S., Immunophenotyping of normal lymphocytes. Clin. Lab. Haematol. 1994. 16: 2132.