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    Stone, T. W. and Darlington, L. G., Endogenous kynurenines as targets for drug discovery and development. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2002. 1: 609620.
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    Hwu, P., Du, M. X., Lapointe, R., Do, M., Taylor, M. W. and Young, H. A., Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase production by human dendritic cells results in the inhibition of T cell proliferation. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 35963599.
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    Grohmann, U., Bianchi, R., Belladonna, M. L., Silla, S., Fallarino, F., Fioretti, M. C. and Puccetti, P., IFN-gamma inhibits presentation of a tumor/self peptide by CD8 alpha dendritic cells via potentiation of the CD8 alpha+ subset. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 13571363.
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    Munn, D. H., Sharma, M. D., Lee, J. R., Jhaver, K. G., Johnson, T. S., Keskin, D. B., Marshall, B. et al., Potential regulatory function of human dendritic cells expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Science 2002. 297: 18671870.
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    Munn, D. H., Mellor, A. L., Rossi, M. and Young, J. W., Dendritic cells have the option to express IDO-mediated suppression or not. Blood 2005. 105: 2618.
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    Terness, P., Chuang, J. J., Bauer, T., Jiga, L. and Opelz, G., Regulation of human auto- and alloreactive T cells by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-producing dendritic cells: Too much ado about IDO? Blood 2005. 105: 24802486.
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    Mellor, A. L. and Munn, D. H., IDO expression by dendritic cells: Tolerance and tryptophan catabolism. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2004. 4: 762774.
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    Grohmann, U., Fallarino, F. and Puccetti, P., Tolerance, DCs and tryptophan: Much ado about IDO. Trends Immunol. 2003. 24: 242248.
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    Terness, P., Chuang, J. J. and Opelz, G., The immunoregulatory role of IDO-producing human dendritic cells revisited. Trends Immunol. 2006. 27: 6873.
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    Terness, P., Bauer, T. M., Rose, L., Dufter, C., Watzlik, A., Simon, H. and Opelz, G., Inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells: Mediation of suppression by tryptophan metabolites. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 196: 447457.
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    Belladonna, M. L., Grohmann, U., Guidetti, P., Volpi, C., Bianchi, R., Fioretti, M. C., Schwarcz, R. et al., Kynurenine pathway enzymes in dendritic cells initiate tolerogenesis in the absence of functional IDO. J. Immunol. 2006. 177: 130137.
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    Fallarino, F., Grohmann, U., You, S., McGrath, B. C., Cavener, D. R., Vacca, C., Orabona, C. et al., The combined effects of tryptophan starvation and tryptophan catabolites down-regulate T cell receptor zeta-chain and induce a regulatory phenotype in naive T cells. J. Immunol. 2006. 176: 67526761.
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    Yamazaki, S., Iyoda, T., Tarbell, K., Olson, K., Velinzon, K., Inaba, K. and Steinman, R. M., Direct expansion of functional CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells by antigen-processing dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 198: 235247.
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    Sakaguchi, S., Naturally arising CD4+ regulatory T cells for immunologic self-tolerance and negative control of immune responses. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2004. 22: 531562.
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    Thornton, A. M. and Shevach, E. M., Suppressor effector function of CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells is antigen nonspecific. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 183190.
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    Munn, D. H., Sharma, M. D., Baban, B., Harding, H. P., Zhang, Y., Ron, D. and Mellor, A. L., GCN2 kinase in T cells mediates proliferative arrest and anergy induction in response to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Immunity 2005. 22: 633642.
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    Muller, A. J., DuHadaway, J. B., Donover, P. S., Sutanto-Ward, E. and Prendergast, G. C., Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, an immunoregulatory target of the cancer suppression gene Bin1, potentiates cancer chemotherapy. Nat. Med. 2005. 11: 312319.
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    Jeong, J. H., Kim, H. J., Lee, T. J., Kim, M. K., Park, E. S. and Choi, B. S., Epigallocatechin 3-gallate attenuates neuronal damage induced by 3-hydroxykynurenine. Toxicology 2004. 195: 5360.
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    Goldstein, L. E., Leopold, M. C., Huang, X., Atwood, C. S., Saunders, A. J., Hartshorn, M., Lim, J. T. Het al., 3-Hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid generate hydrogen peroxide and promote alpha-crystallin cross-linking by metal ion reduction. Biochemistry 2000. 39: 72667275.
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    Verhasselt, V., Vanden Berghe, W., Vanderheyde, N., Willems, F., Haegeman, G. and Goldman, M., N-acetyl-l-cysteine inhibits primary human T cell responses at the dendritic cell level: Association with NF-kappaB inhibition. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 25692574.
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    Matsue, H., Edelbaum, D., Shalhevet, D., Mizumoto, N., Yang, C., Mummert, M. E., Oeda, J. et al., Generation and function of reactive oxygen species in dendritic cells during antigen presentation. J. Immunol. 2003. 171: 30103018.
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    Baecher-Allan, C., Brown, J. A., Freeman, G. J. and Hafler, D. A., CD4+CD25high regulatory cells in human peripheral blood. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 12451253.
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    Moffett, J. R. and Namboodiri, M. A., Tryptophan and the immune response. Immunol. Cell Biol. 2003. 81: 247265.
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    Qin, Z. H., Wang, Y., Nakai, M. and Chase, T. N., Nuclear factor-kappa B contributes to excitotoxin-induced apoptosis in rat striatum. Mol. Pharmacol. 1998. 53: 3342.
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    Sekkai, D., Guittet, O., Lemaire, G., Tenu, J. P. and Lepoivre, M., Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression and activity in macrophages by 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, a tryptophan metabolite. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1997. 340: 117123.
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    Hoshino, K., Kaisho, T., Iwabe, T., Takeuchi, O. and Akira, S., Differential involvement of IFN-beta in Toll-like receptor-stimulated dendritic cell activation. Int. Immunol. 2002. 14: 12251231.
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    Akira, S. and Takeda, K., Toll-like receptor signalling. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2004. 4: 499511.
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    Ruprecht, C. R. and Lanzavecchia, A., Toll-like receptor stimulation as a third signal required for activation of human naive B cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 2006. 36: 810816.
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    Kudo, Y. and Boyd, C. A., The role of l-tryptophan transport in l-tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in human placental explants. J. Physiol. 2001. 531: 417423.
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    Agaugue, S., Perrin-Cocon, L., Coutant, F., Andre, P. and Lotteau, V., 1-Methyl-tryptophan can interfere with TLR signaling in dendritic cells independently of IDO activity. J. Immunol. 2006. 177: 20612071.
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    Cady, S. G. and Sono, M., 1-Methyl-dl-tryptophan, beta-(3-benzofuranyl)-dl-alanine (the oxygen analog of tryptophan), and beta-[3-benzo(b)thienyl]-dl-alanine (the sulfur analog of tryptophan) are competitive inhibitors for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1991. 291: 326333.
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    Sono, M., Taniguchi, T., Watanabe, Y. and Hayaishi, O., Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Equilibrium studies of the tryptophan binding to the ferric, ferrous, and CO-bound enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 1980. 255: 13391345.
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    Kubo, T., Hatton, R. D., Oliver, J., Liu, X., Elson, C. O. and Weaver, C. T., Regulatory T cell suppression and anergy are differentially regulated by proinflammatory cytokines produced by TLR-activated dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 2004. 173: 72497258.
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    Fallarino, F., Vacca, C., Orabona, C., Belladonna, M. L., Bianchi, R., Marshall, B., Keskin, D. B. et al., Functional expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by murine CD8 alpha(+) dendritic cells. Int. Immunol. 2002. 14: 6568.
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    Lee, G. K., Park, H. J., Macleod, M., Chandler, P., Munn, D. H. and Mellor, A. L., Tryptophan deprivation sensitizes activated T cells to apoptosis prior to cell division. Immunology 2002. 107: 452460.
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    Fritzsching, B., Oberle, N., Eberhardt, N., Quick, S., Haas, J., Wildemann, B., Krammer, P. H. et al., In contrast to effector T cells, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells are highly susceptible to CD95 ligand- but not to TCR-mediated cell death. J. Immunol. 2005. 175: 3236.
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    Zhu, L., Ji, F., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Liu, Q., Zhang, J. Z., Matsushima, K. et al., Synovial autoreactive T cells in rheumatoid arthritis resist IDO-mediated inhibition. J. Immunol. 2006. 177: 82268233.
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    Takikawa, O., Kuroiwa, T., Yamazaki, F. and Kido, R., Mechanism of interferon-gamma action. Characterization of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in cultured human cells induced by interferon-gamma and evaluation of the enzyme-mediated tryptophan degradation in its anticellular activity. J. Biol. Chem. 1988. 263: 20412048.
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    Hill, M., Pereira, V., Chauveau, C., Zagani, R., Rémy, S., Tesson, L., Mazal, D. et al., Heme oxygenase-1 inhibits rat and human breast cancer cells proliferation: Mutual cross-inhibition with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. FASEB J. 2005. 19: 19571968.
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