• 1
    Williams, M. A., Trambley, J., Ha, J., Adams, A. B., Durham, M. M., Rees, P., Cowan, S. R. et al., Genetic characterization of strain differences in the ability to mediate CD40/CD28-independent rejection of skin allografts. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 68496857.
  • 2
    Anderson, C. C., Conceptual models in immunity/tolerance: Application to transplantation. In Wilkes, D. S. and Burlingham, W. J. (Eds.) Immunobiology of Organ Transplantation. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York 2004, pp 171190.
  • 3
    Owen, R. D., Immunogenetic consequences of vascular anastomoses between bovine twins. Science 1945. 102: 400401.
  • 4
    Billingham, R. E., Brent, L. and Medawar, P. B., ‘Actively acquired tolerance’ of foreign cells. Nature 1953. 172: 603606.
  • 5
    Starzl, T. E. and Zinkernagel, R. M., Transplantation tolerance from a historical perspective. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2001. 1: 233239.
  • 6
    Cosimi, A. B. and Sachs, D. H., Mixed chimerism and transplantation tolerance. Transplantation 2004. 77: 943946.
  • 7
    Ildstad, S. T., Wren, S. M., Bluestone, J. A., Barbieri, S. A. and Sachs, D. H., Characterization of mixed allogeneic chimeras. Immunocompetence, in vitro reactivity, and genetic specificity of tolerance. J. Exp. Med. 1985. 162: 231244.
  • 8
    Billingham, R. E. and Brent, L., Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. IV. Induction of tolerance in newborn mice and studies on the phenomenon of runt disease. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London Ser. B 1959. 242: 439477.
  • 9
    Billingham, R. E. and Silvers, W. K., Some factors that determine the ability of cellular inocula to induce tolerance of tissue homografts. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 1962. 60: 183200.
  • 10
    Brent, L. and Courtenay, T. H., On the induction of split tolerance. In Hasek, M., Lengerova, A. and Vojtiskova, M. (Eds.) Mechanisms of tolerance. Czechoslovakia Academy of Sciences, Prague 1962, pp 113.
  • 11
    Jackman, S. H., Boyse, E. A. and Goldberg, E. H., Adoptive transfer of skin-selective autoimmunity induced by Skn alloantigenic disparities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1992. 89: 1104111045.
  • 12
    Emery, D. and McCullagh, P., Immunological reactivity between chimeric cattle twins. I. Homograft reaction. Transplantation 1980. 29: 49.
  • 13
    Metzler, B., Gfeller, P., Bigaud, M., Li, J., Wieczorek, G., Heusser, C., Lake, P. and Katopodis, A., Combinations of anti-LFA-1, everolimus, anti-CD40 ligand, and allogeneic bone marrow induce central transplantation tolerance through hemopoietic chimerism, including protection from chronic heart allograft rejection. J. Immunol. 2004. 173: 70257036.
  • 14
    Sharabi, Y. and Sachs, D. H., Mixed chimerism and permanent specific transplantation tolerance induced by a nonlethal preparative regimen. J. Exp. Med. 1989. 169: 493502.
  • 15
    Sykes, M., Szot, G. L., Swenson, K. A. and Pearson, D. A., Induction of high levels of allogeneic hematopoietic reconstitution and donor-specific tolerance without myelosuppressive conditioning. Nat. Med. 1997. 3: 783787.
  • 16
    Tomita, Y., Yoshikawa, M., Zhang, Q. W., Shimizu, I., Okano, S., Iwai, T., Yasui, H. and Nomoto, K., Induction of permanent mixed chimerism and skin allograft tolerance across fully MHC-mismatched barriers by the additional myelosuppressive treatments in mice primed with allogeneic spleen cells followed by cyclophosphamide. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 3441.
  • 17
    Li, H., Inverardi, L., Molano, R. D., Pileggi, A. and Ricordi, C., Nonlethal conditioning for the induction of allogeneic chimerism and tolerance to islet allografts. Transplantation 2003. 75: 966970.
  • 18
    Ildstad, S. T. and Sachs, D. H., Reconstitution with syngeneic plus allogeneic or xenogeneic bone marrow leads to specific acceptance of allografts or xenografts. Nature 1984. 307: 168170.
  • 19
    Luo, B., Nanji, S. A., Schur, C. D., Pawlick, R. L., Anderson, C. C. and Shapiro, A. M., Robust tolerance to fully allogeneic islet transplants achieved by chimerism with minimal conditioning. Transplantation 2005. 80: 370377.
  • 20
    Deng, W., Han, Q., Liao, L., Li, C., Ge, W., Zhao, Z., You, S. et al., Allogeneic bone marrow-derived flk-1+Sca-1 mesenchymal stem cells leads to stable mixed chimerism and donor-specific tolerance. Exp. Hematol. 2004. 32: 861867.
  • 21
    Cobbold, S. P., Martin, G., Qin, S. and Waldmann, H., Monoclonal antibodies to promote marrow engraftment and tissue graft tolerance. Nature 1986. 323: 164166.
  • 22
    Leong, L. Y., Qin, S., Cobbold, S. P. and Waldmann, H., Classical transplantation tolerance in the adult: The interaction between myeloablation and immunosuppression. Eur. J. Immunol. 1992. 22: 28252830.
  • 23
    Doody, D. P., Stenger, K. S. and Winn, H. J., Immunologically nonspecific mechanisms of tissue destruction in the rejection of skin grafts. J. Exp. Med. 1994. 179: 16451652.
  • 24
    Braun, M. Y., Grandjean, I., Feunou, P., Duban, L., Kiss, R., Goldman, M. and Lantz, O., Acute rejection in the absence of cognate recognition of allograft by T cells. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 48794883.
  • 25
    Boyse, E. A., Carswell, E. A., Scheid, M. P. and Old, L. J., Tolerance of Sk-incompatible skin grafts. Nature 1973. 244: 441442.
  • 26
    Boyse, E. A., Lance, E. M., Carswell, E. A., Cooper, S. and Old, L. J., Rejection of skin allografts by radiation chimaeras: Selective gene action in the specification of cell surface structure. Nature 1970. 227: 901903.
  • 27
    Boyse, E. A. and Old, L. J., Loss of skin allograft tolerance by chimeras. Transplantation 1968. 6: 619.
  • 28
    Oehen, S. and Brduscha-Riem, K., Differentiation of naive CTL to effector and memory CTL: Correlation of effector function with phenotype and cell division. J. Immunol. 1998. 161: 53385346.
  • 29
    Fuchimoto, Y., Gleit, Z. L., Huang, C. A., Kitamura, H., Schwarze, M. L., Menard, M. T., Mawulawde, K. et al., Skin-specific alloantigens in miniature swine. Transplantation 2001. 72: 122126.
  • 30
    Taylor, P. A., Lees, C. J., Waldmann, H., Noelle, R. J. and Blazar, B. R., Requirements for the promotion of allogeneic engraftment by anti-CD154 (anti-CD40L) monoclonal antibody under nonmyeloablative conditions. Blood 2001. 98: 467474.
  • 31
    Silverman, M. S. and Chin, P. H., Differences in the rejection of skin transplants and blood cells of donor marrow origin by radiation-induced chimeras. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1962. 99: 542549.
  • 32
    Steinmuller, D., Skin allograft rejection by stable hematopoietic chimeras that accept organ allografts sill is an enigma. Transplantation 2001. 72: 89.
  • 33
    Markees, T. G., Phillips, N. E., Gordon, E. J., Noelle, R. J., Shultz, L. D., Mordes, J. P., Greiner, D. L. and Rossini, A. A., Long-term survival of skin allografts induced by donor splenocytes and anti-CD154 antibody in thymectomized mice requires CD4(+) T cells, interferon-gamma, and CTLA4. J. Clin. Invest. 1998. 101: 24462455.
  • 34
    Qin, S., Cobbold, S. P., Pope, H., Elliott, J., Kioussis, D., Davies, J. and Waldmann, H., “Infectious” transplantation tolerance. Science 1993. 259: 974977.
  • 35
    Qin, S. X., Wise, M., Cobbold, S. P., Leong, L., Kong, Y. C., Parnes, J. R. and Waldmann, H., Induction of tolerance in peripheral T cells with monoclonal antibodies. Eur. J. Immunol. 1990. 20: 27372745.
  • 36
    Bemelman, F., Honey, K., Adams, E., Cobbold, S. and Waldmann, H., Bone marrow transplantation induces either clonal deletion or infectious tolerance depending on the dose. J. Immunol. 1998. 160: 26452648.
  • 37
    Graca, L., Daley, S., Fairchild, P. J., Cobbold, S. P. and Waldmann, H., Co-receptor and co-stimulation blockade for mixed chimerism and tolerance without myelosuppressive conditioning. BMC Immunol. 2006. 7: 9.
  • 38
    Wekerle, T., Sayegh, M. H., Hill, J., Zhao, Y., Chandraker, A., Swenson, K. G., Zhao, G. and Sykes, M., Extrathymic T cell deletion and allogeneic stem cell engraftment induced with costimulatory blockade is followed by central T cell tolerance. J. Exp. Med. 1998. 187: 20372044.
  • 39
    Wekerle, T., Kurtz, J., Ito, H., Ronquillo, J. V., Dong, V., Zhao, G., Shaffer, J. et al., Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with co-stimulatory blockade induces macrochimerism and tolerance without cytoreductive host treatment. Nat. Med. 2000. 6: 464469.
  • 40
    Colson, Y. L., Schuchert, M. J. and Ildstad, S. T., The abrogation of allosensitization following the induction of mixed allogeneic chimerism. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 637644.
  • 41
    Russell, P. S., Chase, C. M., Sykes, M., Ito, H., Shaffer, J. and Colvin, R. B., Tolerance, mixed chimerism, and chronic transplant arteriopathy. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 57315740.
  • 42
    Umemura, A., Morita, H., Li, X. C., Tahan, S., Monaco, A. P. and Maki, T., Dissociation of hemopoietic chimerism and allograft tolerance after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 30433048.
  • 43
    Eto, M., Hackstein, H., Kaneko, K., Nomoto, K. and Thomson, A. W., Promotion of skin graft tolerance across MHC barriers by mobilization of dendritic cells in donor hemopoietic cell infusions. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 23902396.
  • 44
    van Pel, M., van Breugel, D. W., Vos, W., Ploemacher, R. E. and Boog, C. J., Toward a myeloablative regimen with clinical potential: II. Treosulfan induces specific skin graft tolerance across haploidentical MHC barriers. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004. 33: 153159.
  • 45
    Hale, D. A., Gottschalk, R., Umemura, A., Maki, T. and Monaco, A. P., Immunologic mechanisms in tolerance produced in mice with nonradiation-based lymphoablation and donor-specific bone marrow. Transplantation 2002. 74: 477484.
  • 46
    Taylor, P. A., Lees, C. J., Wilson, J. M., Ehrhardt, M. J., Campbell, M. T., Noelle, R. J. and Blazar, B. R., Combined effects of calcineurin inhibitors or sirolimus with anti-CD40L mAb on alloengraftment under nonmyeloablative conditions. Blood 2002. 100: 34003407.
  • 47
    Blaha, P., Bigenzahn, S., Koporc, Z., Schmid, M., Langer, F., Selzer, E., Bergmeister, H. et al., The influence of immunosuppressive drugs on tolerance induction through bone marrow transplantation with costimulation blockade. Blood 2003. 101: 28862893.
  • 48
    Pan, Y., Luo, B., Sozen, H., Kalscheuer, H., Blazar, B. R., Sutherland, D. E., Hering, B. J. and Guo, Z., Blockade of the CD40/CD154 pathway enhances T-cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow engraftment under nonmyeloablative and irradiation-free conditioning therapy. Transplantation 2003. 76: 216224.
  • 49
    Inverardi, L., Linetsky, E., Pileggi, A., Molano, R. D., Serafini, A., Paganelli, G. and Ricordi, C., Targeted bone marrow radioablation with 153Samarium-lexidronam promotes allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism and donor-specific immunologic hyporesponsiveness. Transplantation 2004. 77: 647655.
  • 50
    Lee, E. N., Lee, J., Kim, E. Y., Park, H. J., Chang, C. Y., Jung, D. Y., Choi, S. Y. et al., Tolerance induction through megadose bone marrow transplantation with two-signal blockade. J. Surg. Res. 2006. 130: 102109.
  • 51
    West, L. J. and Tao, K., Acceptance of third-party cardiac but not skin allografts induced by neonatal exposure to semi-allogeneic lymphohematopoietic cells. Am. J. Transplant. 2002. 2: 733744.
  • 52
    Koretz, S. H., Gottlieb, M. S., Strober, S., Pennock, J., Bieber, C. P., Hoppe, R. T., Reitz, B. A. and Kaplan, H. S., Organ transplantation in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Transplant. Proc. 1981. 13: 443445.
  • 53
    Fudaba, Y., Spitzer, T. R., Shaffer, J., Kawai, T., Fehr, T., Delmonico, F., Preffer, F. et al., Myeloma responses and tolerance following combined kidney and nonmyeloablative marrow transplantation: in vivo and in vitro analyses. Am. J. Transplant. 2006. 6: 21212133.
  • 54
    Rose, N. R., Metzgar, R. S. and Witebsky, E., Studies on organ specificity. XI. Isoantigens of rabbit pancreas. J. Immunol. 1960. 85: 575587.
  • 55
    Beilhack, G. F., Scheffold, Y. C., Weissman, I. L., Taylor, C., Jerabek, L., Burge, M. J., Masek, M. A. and Shizuru, J. A., Purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation blocks diabetes pathogenesis in NOD mice. Diabetes 2003. 52: 5968.
  • 56
    Ildstad, S. T., Wren, S. M., Sharrow, S. O., Stephany, D. and Sachs, D. H., In vivo and in vitro characterization of specific hyporeactivity to skin xenografts in mixed xenogeneically reconstituted mice (B10 + F344 rat[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]B10). J. Exp. Med. 1984. 160: 18201835.
  • 57
    Ildstad, S. T., Wren, S. M. and Hronakes, M. L., Cross-species bone marrow transplantation: Evidence for recognition of skin-specific antigens across a species barrier (rat[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]mouse). J. Surg. Res. 1991. 51: 372376.
  • 58
    Ildstad, S. T., Boggs, S. S., Vecchini, F., Wren, S. M., Hronakes, M. L., Johnson, P. C. and Van den Brink, M. R., Mixed xenogeneic chimeras (rat + mouse to mouse). Evidence of rat stem cell engraftment, strain-specific transplantation tolerance, and skin-specific antigens. Transplantation 1992. 53: 815822.