• 1
    Alcami, A. and Koszinowski, U. H., Viral mechanisms of immune evasion. Immunol. Today 2000. 21: 447455.
  • 2
    Seet, B. T., Johnston, J. B., Brunetti, C. R., Barrett, J. W., Everett, H., Cameron, C., Sypula, J. et al., Poxviruses and immune evasion. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2003. 21: 377423.
  • 3
    Finlay, B. B. and McFadden, G., Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens. Cell 2006. 124: 767782.
  • 4
    Alcami, A., Viral mimicry of cytokines, chemokines and their receptors. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2003. 3: 3650.
  • 5
    Humrich, J. Y., Thumann, P., Greiner, S., Humrich, J. H., Averbeck, M., Schwank, C., Kämpgen, E., Schuler, G. and Jenne, L., Vaccinia virus impairs directional migration and chemokine receptor switch of human dendritic cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 2007. 37: DOI 10.1002/eji.200736230
  • 6
    Moss, B., Poxviridae: the viruses and their replication. In Knipe, D. M. and Howley, P. M. (Eds.) Fields Virology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2001, pp 28492883.
  • 7
    Drexler, I., Staib, C. and Sutter, G., Modified vaccinia virus Ankara as antigen delivery system: how can we best use its potential? Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2004. 15: 506512.
  • 8
    Jenne, L., Schuler, G. and Steinkasserer, A., Viral vectors for dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. Trends Immunol. 2001. 22: 102107.
  • 9
    Drillien, R., Spehner, D. and Hanau, D., Modified vaccinia virus Ankara induces moderate activation of human dendritic cells. J. Gen. Virol. 2004. 85: 21672175.
  • 10
    Kastenmuller, W., Drexler, I., Ludwig, H., Erfle, V., Peschel, C., Bernhard, H. and Sutter, G., Infection of human dendritic cells with recombinant vaccinia virus MVA reveals general persistence of viral early transcription but distinct maturation-dependent cytopathogenicity. Virology 2006. 350: 276288.
  • 11
    Blanchard, T. J., Alcami, A., Andrea, P. and Smith, G. L., Modified vaccinia virus Ankara undergoes limited replication in human cells and lacks several immunomodulatory proteins: implications for use as a human vaccine. J. Gen. Virol. 1998. 79 ( Pt 5): 11591167.
  • 12
    Alejo, A., Ruiz-Arguello, M. B., Ho, Y., Smith, V. P., Saraiva, M. and Alcami, A., A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006. 103: 59956000.
  • 13
    Antoine, G., Scheiflinger, F., Dorner, F. and Falkner, F. G., The complete genomic sequence of the modified vaccinia Ankara strain: comparison with other orthopoxviruses. Virology 1998. 244: 365396.
  • 14
    Price, N., Tscharke, D. C., Hollinshead, M. and Smith, G. L., Vaccinia virus gene B7R encodes an 18-kDa protein that is resident in the endoplasmic reticulum and affects virus virulence. Virology 2000. 267: 6579.
  • 15
    Symons, J. A., Alcami, A. and Smith, G. L., Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity. Cell 1995. 81: 551560.
  • 16
    Bowie, A., Kiss-Toth, E., Symons, J. A., Smith, G. L., Dower, S. K. and O'Neill, L. A., A46R and A52R from vaccinia virus are antagonists of host IL-1 and toll-like receptor signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2000. 97: 1016210167.
  • 17
    Harte, M. T., Haga, I. R., Maloney, G., Gray, P., Reading, P. C., Bartlett, N. W., Smith, G. L. et al., The poxvirus protein A52R targets Toll-like receptor signaling complexes to suppress host defense. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 197: 343351.
  • 18
    Walzer, T., Galibert, L., Comeau, M. R. and De Smedt, T., Plexin C1 engagement on mouse dendritic cells by viral semaphorin A39R induces actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and inhibits integrin-mediated adhesion and chemokine-induced migration. J. Immunol 2005. 174: 5159.