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  • 1
    Sela, M., Antigenicity: some molecular aspects. Science 1969. 166: 13651374.
  • 2
    McDevitt, H. O. and Sela, M., Genetic control of the antibody response. I. Demonstration of determinant-specific differences in response to synthetic polypeptide antigens in two strains of inbred mice. J. Exp. Med. 1965. 122: 517531.
  • 3
    McDevitt, H. O., Deak, B. D., Shreffler, D. C., Klein, J., Stimpfling, J. H. and Snell, G. D., Genetic control of the immune response. Mapping of the Ir-1 locus. J. Exp. Med. 1972. 135: 12591278.
  • 4
    Nossal, G. J. V., Abbot, A., Mitchell, J. and Lummus, Z., Antigen in immunity. XV. Ultrastructural features of antigen capture in primary and secondary lymphoid follicles. J. Exp. Med. 1968. 127: 277296.
  • 5
    White, R. G., French, V. I. and Stark, J. M., A study of the localization of a protein antigen in the chicken spleen and its relation to the formation of germinal centers. J. Med. Microbiol. 1970. 3: 6583.
  • 6
    Unanue, E. R. and Cerottini, J.-C., The immunogenicity of antigen bound to the plasma membrane of macrophages. J. Exp. Med. 1970. 131: 711726.
  • 7
    Steinman, R. M. and Cohn, Z. A., The interaction of soluble horseradish peroxidase with mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. J. Cell Biol. 1972. 55: 186204.
  • 8
    Steinman, R. M. and Cohn, Z. A., The interaction of particulate horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-anti HRP immune complexes with mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. J. Cell Biol. 1972. 55: 616634.
  • 9
    Steinman, R. M., Brodie, S. E. and Cohn, Z. A., Membrane flow during pinocytosis. A stereologic analysis. J. Cell Biol. 1976. 68: 665687.
  • 10
    Steinman, R. M., Mellman, I. S., Muller, W. A. and Cohn, Z. A., Endocytosis and the recycling of plasma membrane. J. Cell Biol. 1983. 96: 127.
  • 11
    Goldstein, J. L., Anderson, R. G. and Brown, M. S., Coated pits, coated vesicles, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Nature 1979. 279: 679685.
  • 12
    Mishell, R. I. and Dutton, R. W., Immunization of dissociated spleen cell cultures from normal mice. J. Exp. Med. 1967. 126: 423442.
  • 13
    Steinman, R. M. and Cohn, Z. A., Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution. J. Exp. Med. 1973. 137: 11421162.
  • 14
    Steinman, R. M. and Cohn, Z. A., Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. II. Functional properties in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 1974. 139: 380397.
  • 15
    Steinman, R. M., Kaplan, G., Witmer, M. D. and Cohn, Z. A., Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. V. Purification of spleen dendritic cells, new surface markers, and maintenance in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 1979. 149: 116.
  • 16
    Nussenzweig, M. C., Steinman, R. M., Witmer, M. D. and Gutchinov, B., A monoclonal antibody specific for mouse dendritic cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1982. 79: 161165.
  • 17
    Steinman, R. M., Gutchinov, B., Witmer, M. D. and Nussenzweig, M. C., Dendritic cells are the principal stimulators of the primary mixed leukocyte reaction in mice. J. Exp. Med. 1983. 157: 613627.
  • 18
    Dudziak, D., Kamphorst, A. O., Heidkamp, G. F., Buchholz, V., Trumpfheller, C., Yamazaki, S., Cheong, C. et al., Differential antigen processing by dendritic cell subsets in vivo. Science 2007. 315: 107111.
  • 19
    Crowley, M. T., Inaba, K., Witmer-Pack, M. D., Gezelter, S. and Steinman, R. M., Use of the fluorescence activated cell sorter to enrich dendritic cells from mouse spleen. J. Immunol. Meth. 1990. 133: 5566.
  • 20
    Metlay, J. P., Witmer-Pack, M. D., Agger, R., Crowley, M. T., Lawless, D. and Steinman, R. M., The distinct leukocyte integrins of mouse spleen dendritic cells as identified with new hamster monoclonal antibodies. J. Exp. Med. 1990. 171: 17531771.
  • 21
    Lindquist, R. L., Shakhar, G., Dudziak, D., Wardemann, H., Eisenreich, T., Dustin, M. L. and Nussenzweig, M. C., Visualizing dendritic cell networks in vivo. Nat. Immunol. 2004. 5: 12431250.
  • 22
    Steinman, R. M. and Witmer, M. D., Lymphoid dendritic cells are potent stimulators of the primary mixed leukocyte reaction in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1978. 75: 51325136.
  • 23
    Bain, B., Vas, M. R. and Lowenstein, L., The development of large immature mononuclear cells in mixed leukocyte cultures. Blood 1964. 23: 108116.
  • 24
    Bach, F. and Hirschhorn, K., Lymphocyte interaction: A potential histocompatibility test in vitro. Science 1964. 143: 813814.
  • 25
    Mason, D. W., Pugh, C. W. and Webb, M., The rat mixed lymphocyte reaction: roles of a dendritic cell in intestinal lymph and T cell subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies. Immunology 1981. 44: 7587.
  • 26
    Van Voorhis, W. C., Hair, L. S., Steinman, R. M. and Kaplan, G., Human dendritic cells. Enrichment and characterization from peripheral blood. J. Exp. Med. 1982. 155: 11721187.
  • 27
    Inaba, K. and Steinman, R. M., Resting and sensitized T lymphocytes exhibit distinct stimulatory [antigen-presenting cell] requirements for growth and lymphokine release. J. Exp. Med. 1984. 160: 17171735.
  • 28
    Inaba, K., Witmer, M. D. and Steinman, R. M., Clustering of dendritic cells, helper T lymphocytes, and histocompatible B cells, during primary antibody responses in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 1984. 160: 858876.
  • 29
    Inaba, K. and Steinman, R. M., Accessory cell - T lymphocyte interactions: antigen dependent and independent clustering. J. Exp. Med. 1986. 163: 247261.
  • 30
    Crowley, M., Inaba, K., Witmer-Pack, M. and Steinman, R. M., The cell surface of mouse dendritic cells: FACS analyses of dendritic cells from different tissues including thymus. Cell. Immunol. 1989. 118: 108125.
  • 31
    Vremec, D., Zorbas, M., Scollay, R., Saunders, D. J., Ardavin, C. F., Wu, L. and Shortman, K., The surface phenotype of dendritic cells purified from mouse thymus and spleen: investigation of the CD8 expression by a subpopulation of dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 1992. 176: 4758.
  • 32
    Lechler, R. I. and Batchelor, J. R., Restoration of immunogenicity to passenger cell-depleted kidney allografts by the addition of donor strain dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 1982. 155: 3141.
  • 33
    Faustman, D. L., Steinman, R. M., Gebel, H. M., Hauptfeld, V., Davie, J. M. and Lacy, P. E., Prevention of rejection of murine islet allografts by pretreatment with anti-dendritic cell antibody. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1984. 81: 38643868.
  • 34
    Nussenzweig, M. C., Steinman, R. M., Gutchinov, B. and Cohn, Z. A., Dendritic cells are accessory cells for the development of anti-trinitrophenyl cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 1980. 152: 10701084.
  • 35
    Steinman, R. M. and Nussenzweig, M. C., Dendritic cells: features and functions. Immunol. Rev. 1980. 53: 127147.
  • 36
    Inaba, K., Nakano, K. and Muramatsu, S., Cellular synergy in the manifestation of accessory cell activity for in vitro antibody response. J. Immunol. 1981. 127: 453461.
  • 37
    Inaba, K., Steinman, R. M., Van Voorhis, W. C. and Muramatsu, S., Dendritic cells are critical accessory cells for thymus-dependent antibody responses in mouse and man. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1983. 80: 60416045.
  • 38
    Inaba, K. and Steinman, R. M., Protein-specific helper T lymphocyte formation initiated by dendritic cells. Science 1985. 229: 475479.
  • 39
    Inaba, K., Young, J. W. and Steinman, R. M., Direct activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes by dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 1987. 166: 182-–94.
  • 40
    Koide, S. and Steinman, R. M., Induction of interleukin-1α mRNA during the antigen-dependent interaction of sensitized T lymphoblasts with macrophages. J. Exp. Med. 1988. 168: 409416.
  • 41
    Klinkert, W. E. F., Labadie, J. H., O'Brien, J. P., Beyer, C. F. and Bowers, W. E., Rat dendritic cells function as accessory cells and control the production of a soluble factor required for mitogen responses of T lymphocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1978. 77: 54145418.
  • 42
    Klinkert, W. E. F., Labadie, J. H. and Bowers, W. E., Accessory and stimulating properties of dendritic cells and macrophages isolated from various rat tissues. J. Exp. Med. 1982. 156: 119.
  • 43
    Pugh, C. W., MacPherson, G. G. and Steer, H. W., Characterization of nonlymphoid cells derived from rat peripheral lymph. J. Exp. Med. 1983. 157: 17581779.
  • 44
    Knight, S. C., Balfour, B. M., O'Brien, J., Buttifant, L., Sumerska, T. and Clark, J., Role of veiled cells in lymphocyte activation. Eur. J. Immunol. 1982. 12: 10571060.
  • 45
    Kelly, R. H., Balfour, B. M., Armstrong, J. A. and Griffiths, S., Functional anatomy of lymph nodes. II. Peripheral lymph-borne mononuclear cells. Anat. Rec. 1978. 190: 521.
  • 46
    Drexhage, H. A., Mullink, H., de Groot, J., Clarke, J. and Balfour, B. M., A study of cells present in peripheral lymph of pigs with special reference to a type of cell resembling the Langerhans cells. Cell. Tiss. Res. 1979. 202: 407430.
  • 47
    Tew, J. G., Thorbecke, J. and Steinman, R. M., Dendritic cells in the immune response: characteristics and recommended nomenclature. J. Reticuloendothel.Soc. 1982. 31: 371380.
  • 48
    Schuler, G. and Steinman, R. M., Murine epidermal Langerhans cells mature into potent immunostimulatory dendritic cells in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 1985. 161: 526546.
  • 49
    Inaba, K., Schuler, G., Witmer, M. D., Valinsky, J., Atassi, B. and Steinman, R. M., The immunologic properties of purified Langerhans cells: distinct requirements for the stimulation of unprimed and sensitized T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 1986. 164: 605613.
  • 50
    Witmer-Pack, M. D., Olivier, W., Valinsky, J., Schuler, G. and Steinman, R. M., Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor is essential for the viability and function of cultured murine epidermal Langerhans cells. J. Exp. Med. 1987. 166: 14841498.
  • 51
    Trombetta, E. S. and Mellman, I., Cell biology of antigen processing invitro and in vivo. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2005. 23: 9751028.
  • 52
    Pierre, P., Turley, S. J., Gatti, E., Hull, M., Meltzer, J., Mirza, A., Inaba, K. et al., Developmental regulation of MHC class II transport in mouse dendritic cells. Nature 1997. 388: 787792.
  • 53
    Cella, M., Engering, A., Pinet, V., Pieters, J. and Lanzavecchia, A., Inflammatory stimuli induce accumulation of MHC class II complexes on dendritic cells. Nature 1997. 388: 782787.
  • 54
    Inaba, K., Turley, S., Iyoda, T., Yamaide, F., Shimoyama, S., Reis e Sousa, C., Germain, R. N., Mellman, I. and Steinman, R. M., The formation of immunogenic MHC class II- peptide ligands in lysosomal compartments of dendritic cells is regulated by inflammatory stimuli. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 191: 927936.
  • 55
    Turley, S. J., Inaba, K., Garrett, W. S., Ebersold, M., Untermaehrer, J., Steinman, R. M. and Mellman, I., Transport of peptide-MHC class II complexes in developing dendritic cells. Science 2000. 288: 522527.
  • 56
    Shin, J. S., Ebersold, M., Pypaert, M., Delamarre, L., Hartley, A. and Mellman, I., Surface expression of MHC class II in dendritic cells is controlled by regulated ubiquitination. Nature 2006. 444: 115118.
  • 57
    Inaba, K., Metlay, J. P., Crowley, M. T. and Steinman, R. M., Dendritic cells pulsed with protein antigens in vitro can prime antigen-specific, MHC-restricted T cells in situ. J. Exp. Med. 1990. 172: 631640.
  • 58
    Inaba, K., Inaba, M., Romani, N., Aya, H., Deguchi, M., Ikehara, S., Muramatsu, S. and Steinman, R. M., Generation of large numbers of dendritic cells from mouse bone marrow cultures supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J. Exp. Med. 1992. 176: 16931702.
  • 59
    Inaba, K., Steinman, R. M., Witmer-Pack, M., Aya, H., Inaba, M., Sudo, T. et al., Identification of proliferating dendritic cell precursors in mouse blood. J. Exp. Med. 1992. 175: 11571167.
  • 60
    Caux, C., Dezutter-Dambuyant, C., Schmitt, D. and Banchereau, J., GM-CSF and TNF-α cooperate in the generation of dendritic Langerhans cells. Nature 1992. 360: 258261.
  • 61
    Romani, N., Gruner, S., Brang, D., Kämpgen, E., Lenz, A., Trockenbacher, B., Konwalinka, G., Fritsch, P. O., Steinman, R. M. and Schuler, G., Proliferating dendritic cell progenitors in human blood. J. Exp. Med. 1994. 180: 8393.
  • 62
    Sallusto, F. and Lanzavecchia, A., Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor α. J. Exp. Med. 1994. 179: 11091118.
  • 63
    Inaba, K., Inaba, M., Naito, M. and Steinman, R. M., Dendritic cell progenitors phagocytose particulates, including Bacillus Calmette-Guerin organisms, and sensitize mice to mycobacterial antigens in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 1993. 178: 479488.
  • 64
    Nestle, F. O., Alijagic, S., Gilliet, M., Sun, Y., Grabbe, S., Dummer, R., Burg, G. and Schadendorf, D., Vaccination of melanoma patients with peptide-or tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells. Nat. Med. 1998. 4: 328332.
  • 65
    Hsu, F. J., Benike, C., Fagnoni, F., Liles, T. M., Czerwinski, D., Taidi, B., Engleman, E. G. and Levy, R., Vaccination of patients with B-cell lymphoma using autologous antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. Nat. Med. 1996. 2: 5258.
  • 66
    Dhodapkar, M., Steinman, R. M., Sapp, M., Desai, H., Fossella, C., Krasovsky, J., Donahoe, S. M. et al., Rapid generation of broad T-cell immunity in humans after single injection of mature dendritic cells. J. Clin. Invest. 1999. 104: 173180.
  • 67
    Thurner, B., Haendle, I., Röder, C., Dieckmann, D., Keikavoussi, P., Jonuleit, H., Bender, A. et al., Vaccination with Mage-3A1 peptide-pulsed mature, monocyte-derived dendritic cells expands specific cytotoxic T cells and induces regression of some metastases in advanced stage IV melanoma. J. Exp. Med. 1999. 190: 16691678.
  • 68
    Bender, A., Sapp, M., Schuler, G., Steinman, R. M. and Bhardwaj, N., Improved methods for the generation of dendritic cells from nonproliferating progenitors in human blood. J. Immunol. Methods 1996. 196: 121135.
  • 69
    Romani, N., Reider, D., Heuer, M., Ebner, S., Eibl, B., Niederwieser, D. and Schuler, G., Generation of mature dendritic cells from human blood: an improved method with special regard to clinical applicability. J. Immunol. Methods 1996. 196: 137151.
  • 70
    Hawiger, D., Inaba, K., Dorsett, Y., Guo, K., Mahnke, K., Rivera, M., Ravetch, J. V. et al., Dendritic cells induce peripheral T cell unresponsiveness under steady state conditions in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 194: 769780.
  • 71
    Bonifaz, L., Bonnyay, D., Mahnke, K., Rivera, M., Nussenzweig, M. C. and Steinman, R. M., Efficient targeting of protein antigen to the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205 in the steady state leads to antigen presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I products and peripheral CD8+ T cell tolerance. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 196: 16271638.
  • 72
    Jiang, W., Swiggard, W. J., Heufler, C., Peng, M., Mirza, A., Steinman, R. M. and Nussenzweig, M. C., The receptor DEC-205 expressed by dendritic cells and thymic epithelial cells is involved in antigen processing. Nature 1995. 375: 151155.
  • 73
    Kraal, G., Breel, M., Janse, M. and Bruin, G., Langerhans cells, veiled cells, and interdigitating cells in the mouse recognized by a monoclonal antibody. J. Exp. Med. 1986. 163: 981997.
  • 74
    Liu, K., Iyoda, T., Saternus, M., Kimura, K., Inaba, K. and Steinman, R. M., Immune tolerance after delivery of dying cells to dendritic cells in situ. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 196: 10911097.
  • 75
    Fujii, S., Liu, K., Smith, C., Bonito, A. J. and Steinman, R. M., The linkage of innate to adaptive immunity via maturing dendritic cells in vivo requires CD40 ligation in addition to antigen presentation and CD80/86 costimulation. J. Exp. Med. 2004. 199: 16071618.
  • 76
    Steinman, R. M., Turley, S., Mellman, I. and Inaba, K., The induction of tolerance by dendritic cells that have captured apoptotic cells. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 191: 411416.
  • 77
    Steinman, R. M. and Nussenzweig, M. C., Avoiding horror autotoxicus: the importance of dendritic cells in peripheral T cell tolerance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2002. 99: 351358.
  • 78
    Watanabe, N., Wang, Y. H., Lee, H. K., Ito, T., Cao, W. and Liu, Y. J., Hassall's corpuscles instruct dendritic cells to induce CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in human thymus. Nature 2005. 436: 11811185.
  • 79
    Luo, X., Tarbell, K. V., Yang, H., Pothoven, K., Bailey, S. L., Ding, R., Steinman, R. M. and Suthanthiran, M., Dendritic cells with TGF-β1 differentiate naive CD4+CD25 T cells into islet-protective Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007. 104: 28212826.
  • 80
    Yamazaki, S., Iyoda, T., Tarbell, K., Olson, K., Velinzon, K., Inaba, K. and Steinman, R. M., Direct expansion of functional CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells by antigen processing dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 198: 235247.
  • 81
    Tarbell, K. V., Yamazaki, S., Olson, K., Toy, P. and Steinman, R. M., CD25+ CD4+ T cells, expanded with dendritic cells presenting a single autoantigenic peptide, suppress autoimmune diabetes. J. Exp. Med. 2004. 199: 14671477.
  • 82
    Yamazaki, S., Patel, M., Harper, A., Bonito, A., Fukuyama, H., Pack, M., Tarbell, K. V. et al., Effective expansion of alloantigen-specific Foxp3+ CD25+ regulatory T cells by dendritic cells during the mixed leukocyte reaction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006. 103: 27582763.
  • 83
    Tarbell, K. V., Petit, L., Zuo, X., Toy, P., Luo, X., Mqadmi, A., Yang, H. et al., Dendritic cell-expanded, islet-specific, CD4+ CD25+ CD62L+ regulatory T cells restore normoglycemia in diabetic NOD mice. J. Exp .Med. 2007. 204: 191201.
  • 84
    Crowley, M., Inaba, K. and Steinman, R. M., Dendritic cells are the principal cells in mouse spleen bearing immunogenic fragments of foreign proteins. J. Exp. Med. 1990. 172: 383386.
  • 85
    Mahnke, K., Guo, M., Lee, S., Sepulveda, H., Swain, S. L., Nussenzweig, M. and Steinman, R. M., The dendritic cell receptor for endocytosis, DEC-205, can recycle and enhance antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex class II-positive lysosomal compartments. J. Cell Biol. 2000. 151: 673683.
  • 86
    Bonifaz, L. C., Bonnyay, D. P., Charalambous, A., Darguste, D. I., Fujii, S., Soares, H., Brimnes, M. K. et al., In vivo targeting of antigens to maturing dendritic cells via the DEC-205 receptor improves T cell vaccination. J. Exp. Med. 2004. 199: 815824.
  • 87
    Boscardin, S. B., Hafalla, J. C., Masilamani, R. F., Kamphorst, A. O., Zebroski, H. A., Rai, U., Morrot, A. et al., Antigen targeting to dendritic cells elicits long-lived T cell help for antibody responses. J. Exp. Med. 2006. 203: 599606.
  • 88
    Trumpfheller, C., Finke, J. S., Lopez, C. B., Moran, T. M., Moltedo, B., Soares, H., Huang, Y. et al., Intensified and protective CD4+ T cell immunity at a mucosal surface after a single dose of anti-dendritic cell HIV gag fusion antibody vaccine. J. Exp. Med. 2006. 203: 607617.
  • 89
    Charalambous, A., Oks, M., Nchinda, G., Yamazaki, S. and Steinman, R. M., Dendritic cell targeting of survivin protein in a xenogeneic form elicits strong CD4+ T cell immunity to mouse survivin. J. Immunol. 2006. 177: 84108421.
  • 90
    Soares, H., Waechter, H., Glaichenhaus, N., Mougneau, E., Yagita, H., Mizenina, O., Dudziak, D. et al., DEC-205/CD205+ dendritic cells induce CD4+ T cells to produce IFN-γ by a CD70 dependent, IL-12 independent mechanism. J. Exp. Med. 2007. 204: 10951106.
  • 91
    Iyoda, T., Shimoyama, S., Liu, K., Omatsu, Y., Maeda, Y., Takahara, K., Akiyama, Y. et al., The CD8+ dendritic cell subset selectively endocytoses dying cells in culture and in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 195: 12891302.
  • 92
    Fujii, S., Shimizu, K., Smith, C., Bonifaz, L. and Steinman, R. M., Activation of natural killer T cells by α-galactosylceramide rapidly induces the full maturation of dendritic cells in vivo and thereby acts as an adjuvant for combined CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity to a co-administered protein. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 198: 267279.
  • 93
    Liu, K., Idoyaga, J., Charalambous, A., Fujii, S., Bonito, A., Mordoh, J., Wainstok, R. et al., Innate NKT lymphocytes confer superior adaptive immunity via tumor-capturing dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 2005. 202: 15071516.
  • 94
    Bozzacco, L., Trumpfheller, C., Siegal, F. P., Mehandru, S., Markowitz, M., Carrington, M., Nussenzweig, M. C. et al., DEC-205 receptor on dendritic cells mediates presentation of HIV gag protein to CD8+ T cells in a spectrum of human MHC I haplotypes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007. 104: 12891294
  • 95
    Cameron, P. U., Freudenthal, P. S., Barker, J. M., Gezelter, S., Inaba, K. and Steinman, R. M., Dendritic cells exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transmit a vigorous cytopathic infection to CD4+ T cells. Science 1992. 257: 383387.
  • 96
    Pope, M., Betjes, M. G. H., Romani, N., Hirmand, H., Cameron, P. U., Hoffman, L., Gezelter, S. et al., Conjugates of dendritic cells and memory T lymphocytes from skin facilitate productive infection with HIV-1. Cell 1994. 78: 389398.
  • 97
    Steinman, R. M. and Mellman, I., Immunotherapy: bewitched, bothered, and bewildered no more. Science 2004. 305: 197200.
  • 98
    Steinman, R. M., Dendritic cells: from the fabric of immunology. Clin. Invest. Med. 2004. 27: 231236.
  • 99
    Inaba, K., Romani, N. and Steinman, R. M., An antigen-independent contact mechanism as an early step in T cell-proliferative responses to dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 1989. 170: 527542.