• 1
    Dinarello, C. A., Biologic basis for interleukin-1 in disease. Blood 1996. 87: 20952147.
  • 2
    Cerretti, D. P., Kozlosky, C. J., Mosley, B., Nelson, N., Van Ness, K., Greenstreet, T. A., March, C. J. et al., Molecular cloning of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Science 1992. 256: 97100.
  • 3
    Thornberry, N. A., Bull, H. G., Calaycay, J. R., Chapman, K. T., Howard, A. D., Kostura, M. J., Miller, D. K. et al., A novel heterodimeric cysteine protease is required for interleukin-1 beta processing in monocytes. Nature 1992. 356: 768774.
  • 4
    Li, P., Allen, H., Banerjee, S., Franklin, S., Herzog, L., Johnston, C., McDowell, J. et al., Mice deficient in IL-1 beta-converting enzyme are defective in production of mature IL-1 beta and resistant to endotoxic shock. Cell 1995. 80: 401411.
  • 5
    Kuida, K., Lippke, J. A., Ku, G., Harding, M. W., Livingston, D. J., Su, M. S. and Flavell, R. A., Altered cytokine export and apoptosis in mice deficient in interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Science 1995. 267: 20002003.
  • 6
    Martinon, F., Burns, K. and Tschopp, J., The inflammasome: A molecular platform triggering activation of inflammatory caspases and processing of proIL-beta. Mol. Cell 2002. 10: 417426.
  • 7
    Franchi, L., McDonald, C., Kanneganti, T. D., Amer, A. and Nunez, G., Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors: Intracellular pattern recognition molecules for pathogen detection and host defense. J. Immunol. 2006. 177: 35073513.
  • 8
    Inohara, N. and Nunez, G., Nods: Intracellular proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2003. 3: 371382.
  • 9
    Amer, A., Franchi, L., Kanneganti, T. D., Body-Malapel, M., Ozoren, N., Brady, G., Meshinchi, S. et al., Regulation of Legionella phagosome maturation and infection through flagellin and host Ipaf. J. Biol. Chem. 2006. 281: 3521735223.
  • 10
    Miao, E. A., Alpuche-Aranda, C. M., Dors, M., Clark, A. E., Bader, M. W., Miller, S. I. and Aderem, A., Cytoplasmic flagellin activates caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1beta via Ipaf. Nat. Immunol. 2006. 7: 569575.
  • 11
    Hayashi, F., Smith, K. D., Ozinsky, A., Hawn, T. R., Yi, E. C., Goodlett, D. R., Eng, J. K. et al., The innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediated by Toll-like receptor 5. Nature 2001. 410: 10991103.
  • 12
    Kanneganti, T. D., Ozoren, N., Body-Malapel, M., Amer, A., Park, J. H., Franchi, L., Whitfield, J. et al., Bacterial RNA and small antiviral compounds activate caspase-1 through cryopyrin/Nalp3. Nature 2006. 440: 233236.
  • 13
    Kanneganti, T. D., Body-Malapel, M., Amer, A., Park, J. H., Whitfield, J., Franchi, L., Taraporewala, Z. F. et al., Critical role for Cryopyrin/Nalp3 in activation of caspase-1 in response to viral infection and double-stranded RNA. J. Biol. Chem. 2006. 281: 3656036568.
  • 14
    Martinon, F., Petrilli, V., Mayor, A., Tardivel, A. and Tschopp, J., Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the Nalp3 inflammasome. Nature 2006. 440: 237241.
  • 15
    Sutterwala, F. S., Ogura, Y., Szczepanik, M., Lara-Tejero, M., Lichtenberger, G. S., Grant, E. P., Bertin, J. et al., Critical role for Nalp3/CIAS1/Cryopyrin in innate and adaptive immunity through its regulation of caspase-1. Immunity 2006. 24: 317327.
  • 16
    Mariathasan, S., Weiss, D. S., Newton, K., McBride, J., O'Rourke, K., Roose-Girma, M., Lee, W. P. et al., Cryopyrin activates the inflammasome in response to toxins and ATP. Nature 2006. 440: 228232.
  • 17
    Walter, S., Gudowius, P., Bosshammer, J., Romling, U., Weissbrodt, H., Schurmann, W., von der Hardt, H. and Tummler, B., Epidemiology of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in the airways of lung transplant recipients with cystic fibrosis. Thorax 1997. 52: 318321.
  • 18
    Hauser, A. R., Kang, P. J. and Engel, J. N., PepA, a secreted protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is necessary for cytotoxicity and virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 1998. 27: 807818.
  • 19
    Holder, I. A., Neely, A. N. and Frank, D. W., Type III secretion/intoxication system important in virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in burns. Burns 2001. 27: 129130.
  • 20
    Nicas, T. I. and Iglewski, B. H., The contribution of exoproducts to virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Can. J. Microbiol. 1985. 31: 387392.
  • 21
    Yahr, T. L., Goranson, J. and Frank, D. W., Exoenzyme S of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is secreted by a type III pathway. Mol. Microbiol. 1996. 22: 9911003.
  • 22
    Wolfgang, M. C., Kulasekara, B. R., Liang, X., Boyd, D., Wu, K., Yang, Q., Miyada, C. G. and Lory, S., Conservation of genome content and virulence determinants among clinical and environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2003. 100: 84848489.
  • 23
    Feltman, H., Schulert, G., Khan, S., Jain, M., Peterson, L. and Hauser, A. R., Prevalence of type III secretion genes in clinical and environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology 2001. 147: 26592669.
  • 24
    Lee, V. T., Pukatzki, S., Sato, H., Kikawada, E., Kazimirova, A. A., Huang, J., Li, X. et al., Pseudolipasin A is a specific inhibitor for phospholipase A2 activity of pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin ExoU. Infect. Immun. 2007. 75: 10891098.
  • 25
    Ichikawa, J. K., English, S. B., Wolfgang, M. C., Jackson, R., Butte, A. J. and Lory, S., Genome-wide analysis of host responses to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system yields synergistic effects. Cell. Microbiol. 2005. 7: 16351646.
  • 26
    Feldman, M., Bryan, R., Rajan, S., Scheffler, L., Brunnert, S., Tang, H. and Prince, A., Role of flagella in pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection. Infect. Immun. 1998. 66: 4351.
  • 27
    Mahenthiralingam, E., Campbell, M. E. and Speert, D. P., Nonmotility and phagocytic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from chronically colonized patients with cystic fibrosis. Infect. Immun. 1994. 62: 596605.
  • 28
    Greenberger, P. A., Immunologic aspects of lung diseases and cystic fibrosis. JAMA 1997. 278: 19241930.
  • 29
    Akira, S., Uematsu, S. and Takeuchi, O., Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 2006. 124: 783801.
  • 30
    Inohara, N., Chamaillard, M., McDonald, C. and Nunez, G., Nod-LRR proteins: Role in host-microbial interactions and inflammatory disease. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2005. 74: 355383.
  • 31
    Feuillet, V., Medjane, S., Mondor, I., Demaria, O., Pagni, P. P., Galan, J. E., Flavell, R. A. and Alexopoulou, L., Involvement of Toll-like receptor 5 in the recognition of flagellated bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006. 103: 1248712492.
  • 32
    Power, M. R., Li, B., Yamamoto, M., Akira, S. and Lin, T. J., A role of Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta in the host response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice. J. Immunol. 2007. 178: 31703176.
  • 33
    Power, M. R., Marshall, J. S., Yamamoto, M., Akira, S. and Lin, T. J., The myeloid differentiation factor 88 is dispensable for the development of a delayed host response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2006. 146: 323329.
  • 34
    Ramphal, R., Balloy, V., Huerre, M., Si-Tahar, M. and Chignard, M., TLRs 2 and 4 are not involved in hypersusceptibility to acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. J. Immunol. 2005. 175: 39273934.
  • 35
    Skerrett, S. J., Wilson, C. B., Liggitt, H. D. and Hajjar, A. M., Redundant Toll-like receptor signaling in the pulmonary host response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 2007. 292: L312–L322.
  • 36
    Power, M. R., Peng, Y., Maydanski, E., Marshall, J. S. and Lin, T. J., The development of early host response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is critically dependent on myeloid differentiation factor 88 in mice. J. Biol. Chem. 2004. 279: 4931549322.
  • 37
    Travassos, L. H., Carneiro, L. A., Girardin, S. E., Boneca, I. G., Lemos, R., Bozza, M. T., Domingues, R. C. et al., Nod1 participates in the innate immune response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Biol. Chem. 2005. 280: 3671436718.
  • 38
    Rudner, X. L., Kernacki, K. A., Barrett, R. P. and Hazlett, L. D., Prolonged elevation of IL-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ocular infection regulates macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 production, polymorphonuclear neutrophil persistence, and corneal perforation. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 65766582.
  • 39
    Thakur, A., Barrett, R. P., McClellan, S. and Hazlett, L. D., Regulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal infection in IL-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE, caspase-1) deficient mice. Curr. Eye Res. 2004. 29: 225233.
  • 40
    Reiniger, N., Lee, M. M., Coleman, F. T., Ray, C., Golan, D. E. and Pier, G. B., Resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic lung infection requires CFTR modulated IL-1 release and signaling through the IL-1 receptor. Infect. Immun. 2007. 75: 15981608.
  • 41
    Franchi, L., Amer, A., Body-Malapel, M., Kanneganti, T. D., Ozoren, N., Jagirdar, R., Inohara, N. et al., Cytosolic flagellin requires Ipaf for activation of caspase-1 and interleukin 1beta in Salmonella-infected macrophages. Nat. Immunol. 2006. 7: 576582.
  • 42
    Franchi, L., Kanneganti, T. D., Dubyak, G. R. and Nunez, G., Differential requirement of P2X7 receptor and intracellular K+ for caspase-1 activation induced by intracellular and extracellular bacteria. J. Biol. Chem. 2007. 282: 1881018818.
  • 43
    Verma, A., Arora, S. K., Kuravi, S. K. and Ramphal, R., Roles of specific amino acids in the N terminus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellin and of flagellin glycosylation in the innate immune response. Infect. Immun. 2005. 73: 82378246.
  • 44
    Viala, J., Chaput, C., Boneca, I. G., Cardona, A., Girardin, S. E., Moran, A. P., Athman, R. et al., Nod1 responds to peptidoglycan delivered by the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island. Nat. Immunol. 2004. 5: 11661174.
  • 45
    Fink, S. L. and Cookson, B. T., Apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necrosis: Mechanistic description of dead and dying eukaryotic cells. Infect. Immun. 2005. 73: 19071916.
  • 46
    Sarkar, A., Duncan, M., Hart, J., Hertlein, E., Guttridge, D. C. and Wewers, M. D., ASC directs NF-kappaB activation by regulating receptor interacting protein-2 (RIP2) caspase-1 interactions. J. Immunol. 2006. 176: 49794986.
  • 47
    Taxman, D. J., Zhang, J., Champagne, C., Bergstralh, D. T., Iocca, H. A., Lich, J. D. and Ting, J. P., Cutting edge: ASC mediates the induction of multiple cytokines by Porphyromonas gingivalisvia caspase-1-dependent and -independent pathways. J. Immunol. 2006. 177: 42524256.
  • 48
    Masumoto, J., Dowds, T. A., Schaner, P., Chen, F. F., Ogura, Y., Li, M., Zhu, L. et al., ASC is an activating adaptor for NF-kappa B and caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003. 303: 6973.
  • 49
    Medzhitov, R., Preston-Hurlburt, P., Kopp, E., Stadlen, A., Chen, C., Ghosh, S. and Janeway, C. A., Jr., MyD88 is an adaptor protein in the hToll/IL-1 receptor family signaling pathways. Mol. Cell 1998. 2: 253258.
  • 50
    Lara-Tejero, M., Sutterwala, F. S., Ogura, Y., Grant, E. P., Bertin, J., Coyle, A. J., Flavell, R. A. and Galan, J. E., Role of the caspase-1 inflammasome in Salmonella typhimurium pathogenesis. J. Exp. Med. 2006. 203: 14071412.
  • 51
    Ozoren, N., Masumoto, J., Franchi, L., Kanneganti, T. D., Body-Malapel, M., Erturk, I., Jagirdar, R. et al., Distinct roles of TLR2 and the adaptor ASC in IL-1beta/IL-18 secretion in response to Listeria monocytogenes. J. Immunol. 2006. 176: 43374342.
  • 52
    Labasi, J. M., Petrushova, N., Donovan, C., McCurdy, S., Lira, P., Payette, M. M., Brissette, W. et al., Absence of the P2X7 receptor alters leukocyte function and attenuates an inflammatory response. J. Immunol. 2002. 168: 64366445.
  • 53
    Celada, A., Gray, P. W., Rinderknecht, E. and Schreiber, R. D., Evidence for a gamma-interferon receptor that regulates macrophage tumoricidal activity. J. Exp. Med. 1984. 160: 5574.
  • 54
    Peters-Golden, M. and Thebert, P., Inhibition by methylprednisolone of zymosan-induced leukotriene synthesis in alveolar macrophages. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1987. 135: 10201026.