• 1
    Granucci, F., Foti, M. and Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P., Dendritic cell biology. Adv. Immunol. 2005. 88: 193233.
  • 2
    Steinman, R. M., Dendritic cells: versatile controllers of the immune system. Nat. Med. 2007. 13: 11551159.
  • 3
    Wu, L. and Liu, Y. J., Development of dendritic-cell lineages. Immunity 2007. 26: 741750.
  • 4
    Lin, M. L., Zhan, Y., Villadangos, J. A. and Lew, A. M., The cell biology of cross-presentation and the role of dendritic cell subsets. Immunol. Cell Biol. 2008. 86: 353362.
  • 5
    Reis e Sousa, C., Dendritic cells in a mature age. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2006. 6: 476483.
  • 6
    Ishii, K. J., Koyama, S., Nakagawa, A., Coban, C. and Akira, S., Host innate immune receptors and beyond: making sense of microbial infections. Cell Host Microbe 2008. 3: 352363.
  • 7
    Steinman, R. M. and Banchereau, J., Taking dendritic cells into medicine. Nature 2007. 449: 419426.
  • 8
    Tacken, P. J., de Vries, I. J., Torensma, R. and Figdor, C. G., Dendritic-cell immunotherapy: from ex vivo loading to in vivo targeting. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2007. 7: 790802.
  • 9
    Hackstein, H. and Thomson, A. W., Dendritic cells: emerging pharmacological targets of immunosuppressive drugs. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2004. 4: 2434.
  • 10
    Pashine, A., Valiante, N. M. and Ulmer, J. B., Targeting the innate immune response with improved vaccine adjuvants. Nat. Med. 2005. 11: S6368.
  • 11
    Chen, X., Yang, L., Howard, O. M. and Oppenheim, J. J., Dendritic cells as a pharmacological target of traditional Chinese medicine. Cell Mol. Immunol. 2006. 3: 401410.
  • 12
    Koehn, F. E. and Carter, G. T., The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2005. 4: 206220.
  • 13
    Zjawiony, J. K., Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi. J. Nat. Prod. 2004. 67: 300310.
  • 14
    Lin, Z. B., Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulation by Ganoderma lucidum. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 2005. 99: 144153.
  • 15
    Zhou, X., Lin, J., Yin, Y., Zhao, J., Sun, X. and Tang, K., Ganodermataceae: natural products and their related pharmacological functions. Am. J. Chin. Med. 2007. 35: 559574.
  • 16
    Chang, T.-T. and Chou, W.-N., Antrodiacinnamomea sp. nov. on Cinnamomum kanehirai in Taiwan. Mycol. Res. 1995. 99: 756758.
  • 17
    Chang, T.-T. and Chou, W.-N., Antrodia cinnamomea reconsidered and A. salmonea sp. nov. on Cunninghamia konishii in Taiwan. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 2004. 45: 347352.
  • 18
    Ao, Z. H., Xu, Z. H., Lu, Z. M., Xu, H. Y., Zhang, X. M. and Dou, W. F., Niuchangchih (Antrodia camphorata) and its potential in treating liver diseases. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009. 121: 194212.
  • 19
    Liu, D. Z., Liang, H. J., Chen, C. H., Su, C. H., Lee, T. H., Huang, C. T., Hou, W. C. et al., Comparative anti-inflammatory characterization of wild fruiting body, liquid-state fermentation, and solid-state culture of Taiwanofungus camphoratus in microglia and the mechanism of its action. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007. 113: 4553.
  • 20
    Lu, M. K., Cheng, J. J., Lai, W. L., Lin, Y. J. and Huang, N. K., Fermented Antrodia cinnamomea extract protects rat PC12 cells from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis: the role of the MAPK family. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 2008. 56: 865874.
  • 21
    Chen, Y. J., Cheng, P. C., Lin, C. N., Liao, H. F., Chen, Y. Y., Chen, C. C. and Lee, K. M., Polysaccharides from Antrodia camphorata mycelia extracts possess immunomodulatory activity and inhibits infection of Schistosoma mansoni. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2008. 8: 458467.
  • 22
    Shao, Y. Y., Chen, C. C., Wang, H. Y., Chiu, H. L., Hseu, T. H. and Kuo, Y. H., Chemical constituents of Antrodia camphorata submerged whole broth. Nat. Prod. Res. 2008. 22: 11511157.
  • 23
    Shen, Y. C., Wang, Y. H., Chou, Y. C., Chen, C. F., Lin, L. C., Chang, T. T., Tien, J. H. and Chou, C. J., Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of zhankuic acids isolated from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata. Planta Med. 2004. 70: 310314.
  • 24
    Chien, S. C., Chen, M. L., Kuo, H. T., Tsai, Y. C., Lin, B. F. and Kuo, Y. H., Anti-inflammatory activities of new succinic and maleic derivatives from the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorata. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008.
  • 25
    Xu, R., Fazio, G. C. and Matsuda, S. P., On the origins of triterpenoid skeletal diversity. Phytochemistry 2004. 65: 261291.
  • 26
    Dzubak, P., Hajduch, M., Vydra, D., Hustova, A., Kvasnica, M., Biedermann, D., Markova, L. et al., Pharmacological activities of natural triterpenoids and their therapeutic implications. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2006. 23: 394411.
  • 27
    Minns, L. A., Buzoni-Gatel, D., Ely, K. H., Rachinel, N., Luangsay, S. and Kasper, L. H., A novel triterpenoid induces transforming growth factor beta production by intraepithelial lymphocytes to prevent ileitis. Gastroenterology 2004. 127: 119126.
  • 28
    Yoshida, T., Tsuda, Y., Takeuchi, D., Kobayashi, M., Pollard, R. B. and Suzuki, F., Glycyrrhizin inhibits neutrophil-associated generation of alternatively activated macrophages. Cytokine 2006. 33: 317322.
  • 29
    Wang, G., Zhao, J., Liu, J., Huang, Y., Zhong, J. J. and Tang, W., Enhancement of IL-2 and IFN-gamma expression and NK cells activity involved in the anti-tumor effect of ganoderic acid Me in vivo. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2007. 7: 864870.
  • 30
    Abe, M., Akbar, F., Hasebe, A., Horiike, N. and Onji, M., Glycyrrhizin enhances interleukin-10 production by liver dendritic cells in mice with hepatitis. J. Gastroenterol. 2003. 38: 962967.
  • 31
    Takei, M., Tachikawa, E., Hasegawa, H. and Lee, J. J., Dendritic cells maturation promoted by M1 and M4, end products of steroidal ginseng saponins metabolized in digestive tracts, drive a potent Th1 polarization. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2004. 68: 441452.
  • 32
    Rhule, A., Rase, B., Smith, J. R. and Shepherd, D. M., Toll-like receptor ligand-induced activation of murine DC2.4 cells is attenuated by Panax notoginseng. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008. 116: 179186.
  • 33
    Cherng, I. H., Wu, D.-P. and Chiang, H.-C., Triterpenoids from Antrodia cinnamomea. Phytochemistry 1996. 41: 263267.
  • 34
    Shen, Y. C., Yang, S. W., Lin, C. S., Chen, C. H., Kuo, Y. H. and Chen, C. F., Zhankuic acid F: a new metabolite from a formosan fungus Antrodia cinnamomea. Planta Med. 1997. 63: 8688.
  • 35
    Shen, C. C., Huang, R. L., Lin, L. C., Don, M. J., Chang, T. T. and Chou, C. J., New ergostane and lanostane from Antrodiacamphorata. J. Chin. Med. 2003. 14: 247258.
  • 36
    Shen, Y. C., Chen, C. F., Wang, Y. H., Chang, T. T. and Chou, C. J., Evaluation of the immuno-modulating activity of some active principles isolated from fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata. Chin. Pharm. J. 2003. 55: 313318.
  • 37
    Huang, R. L., Huang, Q. L., Chen, C. F., Chang, T. T. and Chou, C. J., Anti-viral effects of active compounds from Antrodia camphorata on wilt-type and lamivudine-resistant mutant HBV. Chin. Pharm. J. 2003. 55: 371379.
  • 38
    Shen, C. C., Wang, Y. H., Chang, T. T., Lin, L. C., Don, M. J., Hou, Y. C., Liou, K. T. et al., Anti-inflammatory ergostanes from the basidiomata of Antrodia salmonea. Planta Med. 2007. 73: 12081213.
  • 39
    Kalinski, P., Schuitemaker, J. H., Hilkens, C. M., Wierenga, E. A. and Kapsenberg, M. L., Final maturation of dendritic cells is associated with impaired responsiveness to IFN-gamma and to bacterial IL-12 inducers: decreased ability of mature dendritic cells to produce IL-12 during the interaction with Th cells. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 32313236.
  • 40
    Ikeda, Y., Murakami, A. and Ohigashi, H., Ursolic acid promotes the release of macrophage migration inhibitory factor via ERK2 activation in resting mouse macrophages. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2005. 70: 14971505.
  • 41
    Ikeda, Y., Murakami, A., Fujimura, Y., Tachibana, H., Yamada, K., Masuda, D., Hirano, K., et al., Aggregated ursolic acid, a natural triterpenoid, induces IL-1beta release from murine peritoneal macrophages: role of CD36. J. Immunol. 2007. 178: 48544864.
  • 42
    Liu, Q., Chen, T., Chen, G., Li, N., Wang, J., Ma, P. and Cao, X., Immunosuppressant triptolide inhibits dendritic cell-mediated chemoattraction of neutrophils and T cells through inhibiting Stat3 phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2006. 345: 11221130.
  • 43
    Dearman, R. J., Cumberbatch, M., Maxwell, G., Basketter, D. A. and Kimber, I., Toll-like receptor ligand activation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Immunology 2009. 126: 475484.
  • 44
    Sugai, T., Mori, M., Nakazawa, M., Ichino, M., Naruto, T., Kobayashi, N., Kobayashi, Y. et al., A CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide as an efficient adjuvant counterbalancing the Th1/Th2 immune response in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. Vaccine 2005. 23: 54505456.
  • 45
    Kobayashi, T., Iijima, K., Radhakrishnan, S., Mehta, V., Vassallo, R., Lawrence, C. B., Cyong, J. C. et al., Asthma-related environmental fungus, Alternaria, activates dendritic cells and produces potent Th2 adjuvant activity. J. Immunol. 2009. 182: 25022510.
  • 46
    Kadowaki, N., Dendritic cells: a conductor of T cell differentiation. Allergol. Int. 2007. 56: 193199.
  • 47
    Liu, Y. J., Soumelis, V., Watanabe, N., Ito, T., Wang, Y. H., Malefyt Rde, W., Omori, M. et al., TSLP: an epithelial cell cytokine that regulates T cell differentiation by conditioning dendritic cell maturation. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2007. 25: 193219.
  • 48
    Blazquez, A. B. and Berin, M. C., Gastrointestinal dendritic cells promote Th2 skewing via OX40L. J. Immunol. 2008. 180: 44414450.
  • 49
    Jung, S. H., Ha, Y. J., Shim, E. K., Choi, S. Y., Jin, J. L., Yun-Choi, H. S. and Lee, J. R., Insulin-mimetic and insulin-sensitizing activities of a pentacyclic triterpenoid insulin receptor activator. Biochem. J. 2007. 403: 243250.
  • 50
    Xu, Z. X., Liang, J., Haridas, V., Gaikwad, A., Connolly, F. P., Mills, G. B. and Gutterman, J. U., A plant triterpenoid, avicin D, induces autophagy by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Cell Death Differ. 2007. 14: 19481957.
  • 51
    Papineni, S., Chintharlapalli, S. and Safe, S., Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18 beta-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist that induces receptor-independent apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mol. Pharmacol. 2008. 73: 553565.
  • 52
    Shi, L., Zhang, W., Zhou, Y. Y., Zhang, Y. N., Li, J. Y., Hu, L. H. and Li, J., Corosolic acid stimulates glucose uptake via enhancing insulin receptor phosphorylation. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2008. 584: 2129.
  • 53
    Rabi, T. and Banerjee, S., Novel synthetic triterpenoid methyl 25-hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-28-oate induces apoptosis through JNK and p38 MAPK pathways in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Mol. Carcinog. 2008. 47: 415423.
  • 54
    Ikeda, Y., Murakami, A. and Ohigashi, H., Ursolic acid: an anti- and pro-inflammatory triterpenoid. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2008. 52: 2642.
  • 55
    Viardot, A., Grey, S. T., Mackay, F. and Chisholm, D., Potential antiinflammatory role of insulin via the preferential polarization of effector T cells toward a T helper 2 phenotype. Endocrinology 2007. 148: 346353.
  • 56
    Brod, S. A. and Hood, Z., Ingested (oral) SIRS peptide 1-21 inhibits acute EAE by inducing Th2-like cytokines. J. Neuroimmunol. 2007. 183: 8995.
  • 57
    Chu, C. L. and Lowell, C. A., The Lyn tyrosine kinase differentially regulates dendritic cell generation and maturation. J. Immunol. 2005. 175: 28802889.
  • 58
    Chu, C. L., Yu, Y. L., Shen, K. Y., Lowell, C. A., Lanier, L. L. and Hamerman, J. A., Increased TLR responses in dendritic cells lacking the ITAM-containing adapters DAP12 and FcRgamma. Eur. J. Immunol. 2008. 38: 166173.
  • 59
    Angkasekwinai, P., Park, H., Wang, Y. H., Wang, Y. H., Chang, S. H., Corry, D. B., Liu, Y. J. et al., Interleukin 25 promotes the initiation of proallergic type 2 responses. J. Exp. Med. 2007. 204: 15091517.
  • 60
    Rzepecka, J., Rausch, S., Klotz, C., Schnoller, C., Kornprobst, T., Hagen, J. et al., Calreticulin from the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus is a Th2-skewing protein and interacts with murine scavenger receptor-A. Mol. Immunol. 2009. 46: 11091119.