• 1
    Frohm, M., Agerberth, B., Ahangari, G., Stahle-Backdahl, M., Liden, S., Wigzell, H. and Gudmundsson, G. H., The expression of the gene coding for the antibacterial peptide LL-37 is induced in human keratinocytes during inflammatory disorders. J. Biol. Chem. 1997. 272: 1525815263.
  • 2
    Ong, P. Y., Ohtake, T., Brandt, C., Strickland, I., Boguniewicz, M., Ganz, T., Gallo, R. L. and Leung, D. Y., Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and skin infections in atopic dermatitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002. 347: 11511160.
  • 3
    Nomura, I., Gao, B., Boguniewicz, M., Darst, M. A., Travers, J. B. and Leung, D. Y., Distinct patterns of gene expression in the skin lesions of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis: a gene microarray analysis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2003. 112: 11951202.
  • 4
    Nomura, I., Goleva, E., Howell, M. D., Hamid, Q. A., Ong, P. Y., Hall, C. F., Darst, M. A. et al., Cytokine milieu of atopic dermatitis, as compared to psoriasis, skin prevents induction of innate immune response genes. J. Immunol. 2003. 171: 32623269.
  • 5
    Nograles, K. E., Zaba, L. C., Guttman-Yassky, E., Fuentes-Duculan, J., Suarez-Farinas, M., Cardinale, I., Khatcherian, A. et al., Th17 cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 modulate distinct inflammatory and keratinocyte-response pathways. Br. J. Dermatol. 2008. 159: 10921102.
  • 6
    Elder, J. T., Fisher, G. J., Lindquist, P. B., Bennett, G. L., Pittelkow, M. R., Coffey, R. J., Jr., Ellingsworth, L. et al., Overexpression of transforming growth factor alpha in psoriatic epidermis. Science 1989. 243: 811814.
  • 7
    Cook, P. W., Pittelkow, M. R., Keeble, W. W., Graves-Deal, R., Coffey, R. J., Jr. and Shipley, G. D., Amphiregulin messenger RNA is elevated in psoriatic epidermis and gastrointestinal carcinomas. Cancer Res. 1992. 52: 32243227.
  • 8
    Stoll, S. W. and Elder, J. T., Retinoid regulation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor gene expression in human keratinocytes and skin. Exp. Dermatol. 1998. 7: 391397.
  • 9
    Shirakata, Y., Kishimoto, J., Tokumaru, S., Yamasaki, K., Hanakawa, Y., Tohyama, M., Sayama, K. and Hashimoto, K., Epiregulin, a member of the EGF family, is over-expressed in psoriatic epidermis. J. Dermatol. Sci. 2007. 45: 6972.
  • 10
    Ouyang, W., Kolls, J. K. and Zheng, Y., The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammation. Immunity 2008. 28: 454467.
  • 11
    Homey, B., Dieu-Nosjean, M. C., Wiesenborn, A., Massacrier, C., Pin, J. J., Oldham, E., Catron, D. et al., Up-regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha/CCL20 and CC chemokine receptor 6 in psoriasis. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 66216632.
  • 12
    Albanesi, C., Cavani, A. and Girolomoni, G., IL-17 is produced by nickel-specific T lymphocytes and regulates ICAM-1 expression and chemokine production in human keratinocytes: synergistic or antagonist effects with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 494502.
  • 13
    Sa, S. M., Valdez, P. A., Wu, J., Jung, K., Zhong, F., Hall, L., Kasman, I. et al., The effects of IL-20 subfamily cytokines on reconstituted human epidermis suggest potential roles in cutaneous innate defense and pathogenic adaptive immunity in psoriasis. J. Immunol. 2007. 178: 22292240.
  • 14
    Wolk, K., Witte, E., Wallace, E., Docke, W. D., Kunz, S., Asadullah, K., Volk, H. D. et al., IL-22 regulates the expression of genes responsible for antimicrobial defense, cellular differentiation, and mobility in keratinocytes: a potential role in psoriasis. Eur. J. Immunol. 2006. 36: 13091323.
  • 15
    Boniface, K., Bernard, F. X., Garcia, M., Gurney, A. L., Lecron, J. C. and Morel, F., IL-22 inhibits epidermal differentiation and induces proinflammatory gene expression and migration of human keratinocytes. J. Immunol. 2005. 174: 36953702.
  • 16
    Kotenko, S. V., Izotova, L. S., Mirochnitchenko, O. V., Esterova, E., Dickensheets, H., Donnelly, R. P. and Pestka, S., Identification of the functional interleukin-22 (IL-22) receptor complex: the IL-10R2 chain (IL-10Rbeta ) is a common chain of both the IL-10 and IL-22 (IL-10-related T cell-derived inducible factor, IL-TIF) receptor complexes. J. Biol. Chem. 2001. 276: 27252732.
  • 17
    Kunz, S., Wolk, K., Witte, E., Witte, K., Doecke, W. D., Volk, H. D., Sterry, W. et al., Interleukin (IL)-19, IL-20 and IL-24 are produced by and act on keratinocytes and are distinct from classical ILs. Exp. Dermatol. 2006. 15: 9911004.
  • 18
    Nagalakshmi, M. L., Murphy, E., McClanahan, T. and de Waal Malefyt, R., Expression patterns of IL-10 ligand and receptor gene families provide leads for biological characterization. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2004. 4: 577592.
  • 19
    Wolk, K., Kunz, S., Asadullah, K. and Sabat, R., Cutting edge: immune cells as sources and targets of the IL-10 family members? J. Immunol. 2002. 168: 53975402.
  • 20
    Huang, F., Wachi, S., Thai, P., Loukoianov, A., Tan, K. H., Forteza, R. M. and Wu, R., Potentiation of IL-19 expression in airway epithelia by IL-17A and IL-4/IL-13: important implications in asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2008. 121: 14151421, 1421 e1–3.
  • 21
    Pestka, S., Krause, C. D., Sarkar, D., Walter, M. R., Shi, Y. and Fisher, P. B., Interleukin-10 and related cytokines and receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2004. 22: 929979.
  • 22
    Dumoutier, L., Leemans, C., Lejeune, D., Kotenko, S. V. and Renauld, J. C., Cutting edge: STAT activation by IL-19, IL-20 and mda-7 through IL-20 receptor complexes of two types. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 35453549.
  • 23
    Parrish-Novak, J., Xu, W., Brender, T., Yao, L., Jones, C., West, J., Brandt, C. et al., Interleukins 19, 20, and 24 signal through two distinct receptor complexes. Differences in receptor-ligand interactions mediate unique biological functions. J. Biol. Chem. 2002. 277: 4751747523.
  • 24
    Sano, S., Chan, K. S., Carbajal, S., Clifford, J., Peavey, M., Kiguchi, K., Itami, S. et al., Stat3 links activated keratinocytes and immunocytes required for development of psoriasis in a novel transgenic mouse model. Nat. Med. 2005. 11: 4349.
  • 25
    Romer, J., Hasselager, E., Norby, P. L., Steiniche, T., Thorn Clausen, J. and Kragballe, K., Epidermal overexpression of interleukin-19 and -20 mRNA in psoriatic skin disappears after short-term treatment with cyclosporine a or calcipotriol. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2003. 121: 13061311.
  • 26
    Otkjaer, K., Kragballe, K., Funding, A. T., Clausen, J. T., Noerby, P. L., Steiniche, T. and Iversen, L., The dynamics of gene expression of interleukin-19 and interleukin-20 and their receptors in psoriasis. Br. J. Dermatol. 2005. 153: 911918.
  • 27
    Gallagher, G., Dickensheets, H., Eskdale, J., Izotova, L. S., Mirochnitchenko, O. V., Peat, J. D., Vazquez, N. et al., Cloning, expression and initial characterization of interleukin-19 (IL-19), a novel homologue of human interleukin-10 (IL-10). Genes Immun. 2000. 1: 442450.
  • 28
    Poindexter, N. J., Walch, E. T., Chada, S. and Grimm, E. A., Cytokine induction of interleukin-24 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2005. 78: 745752.
  • 29
    Wolk, K., Witte, K., Witte, E., Proesch, S., Schulze-Tanzil, G., Nasilowska, K., Thilo, J. et al., Maturing dendritic cells are an important source of IL-29 and IL-20 that may cooperatively increase the innate immunity of keratinocytes. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2008. 83: 11811193.
  • 30
    Wang, F., Lee, E., Lowes, M. A., Haider, A. S., Fuentes-Duculan, J., Abello, M. V., Chamian, F. et al., Prominent production of IL-20 by CD68+/CD11c+myeloid-derived cells in psoriasis: gene regulation and cellular effects. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2006. 126: 15901599.
  • 31
    Liang, S. C., Tan, X. Y., Luxenberg, D. P., Karim, R., Dunussi-Joannopoulos, K., Collins, M. and Fouser, L. A., Interleukin (IL)-22 and IL-17 are coexpressed by Th17 cells and cooperatively enhance expression of antimicrobial peptides. J. Exp. Med. 2006. 203: 22712279.
  • 32
    Jiang, H., Lin, J. J., Su, Z. Z., Goldstein, N. I. and Fisher, P. B., Subtraction hybridization identifies a novel melanoma differentiation associated gene, mda-7, modulated during human melanoma differentiation, growth and progression. Oncogene 1995. 11: 24772486.
  • 33
    Wilson, N. J., Boniface, K., Chan, J. R., McKenzie, B. S., Blumenschein, W. M., Mattson, J. D., Basham, B. et al., Development, cytokine profile and function of human interleukin 17-producing helper T cells. Nat. Immunol. 2007. 8: 950957.
  • 34
    Annunziato, F., Cosmi, L., Santarlasci, V., Maggi, L., Liotta, F., Mazzinghi, B., Parente, E. et al., Phenotypic and functional features of human Th17 cells. J. Exp. Med. 2007. 204: 18491861.
  • 35
    Singh, S. P., Zhang, H. H., Foley, J. F., Hedrick, M. N. and Farber, J. M., Human T cells that are able to produce IL-17 express the chemokine receptor CCR6. J. Immunol. 2008. 180: 214221.
  • 36
    Hashimoto, K., Higashiyama, S., Asada, H., Hashimura, E., Kobayashi, T., Sudo, K., Nakagawa, T. et al., Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor is an autocrine growth factor for human keratinocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 1994. 269: 2006020066.
  • 37
    Boniface, K., Guignouard, E., Pedretti, N., Garcia, M., Delwail, A., Bernard, F. X., Nau, F. et al., A role for T cell-derived interleukin 22 in psoriatic skin inflammation. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2007. 150: 407415.
  • 38
    Liao, S. C., Cheng, Y. C., Wang, Y. C., Wang, C. W., Yang, S. M., Yu, C. K., Shieh, C. C. et al., IL-19 induced Th2 cytokines and was up-regulated in asthma patients. J. Immunol. 2004. 173: 67126718.
  • 39
    Gallagher, G., Eskdale, J., Jordan, W., Peat, J., Campbell, J., Boniotto, M., Lennon, G. P. et al., Human interleukin-19 and its receptor: a potential role in the induction of Th2 responses. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2004. 4: 615626.
  • 40
    Hsing, C. H., Hsu, C. C., Chen, W. Y., Chang, L. Y., Hwang, J. C. and Chang, M. S., Expression of IL-19 correlates with Th2 cytokines in uraemic patients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2007. 22: 22302238.
  • 41
    Shirakata, Y., Ueno, H., Hanakawa, Y., Kameda, K., Yamasaki, K., Tokumaru, S., Yahata, Y. et al., TGF-beta is not involved in early phase growth inhibition of keratinocytes by 1alpha,25(OH)2vitamin D3. J. Dermatol. Sci. 2004. 36: 4150.
  • 42
    Hanakawa, Y., Amagai, M., Shirakata, Y., Sayama, K. and Hashimoto, K., Different effects of dominant negative mutants of desmocollin and desmoglein on the cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes. J. Cell. Sci. 2000. 113: 18031811.