Role of Treg in immune regulation of allergic diseases

Authors

  • Oscar Palomares,

    1. Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland
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  • Görkem Yaman,

    1. Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland
    2. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey
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  • Ahmet K. Azkur,

    1. Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland
    2. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey
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  • Tunc Akkoc,

    1. Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland
    2. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
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  • Mübeccel Akdis,

    1. Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland
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  • Cezmi A. Akdis

    Corresponding author
    1. Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland
    • Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF) Obere Str. 22, CH-7270, Davos Platz, Switzerland Fax: +41-81-410-08-40
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Abstract

Allergy is a Th2-mediated disease that involves the formation of specific IgE antibodies against innocuous environmental substances. The prevalence of allergic diseases has dramatically increased over the past decades, affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. The understanding of mechanisms underlying allergic diseases as well as those operating in non-allergic healthy responses and allergen-specific immunotherapy has experienced exciting advances over the past 15 years. Studies in healthy non-atopic individuals and several clinical trials of allergen-specific immunotherapy have demonstrated that the induction of a tolerant state in peripheral T cells represent a key step in healthy immune responses to allergens. Both naturally occurring thymus-derived CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg and inducible type 1 Treg inhibit the development of allergy via several mechanisms, including suppression of other effector Th1, Th2, Th17 cells; suppression of eosinophils, mast cells and basophils; Ab isotype change from IgE to IgG4; suppression of inflammatory DC; and suppression of inflammatory cell migration to tissues. The identification of the molecules involved in these processes will contribute to the development of more efficient and safer treatment modalities.

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