• 1
    Kraft, S. and Kinet, J. P., New developments in FcεRI regulation, function and inhibition. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2007. 7: 365378.
  • 2
    Marshall, J. S., Mast-cell responses to pathogens. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2004. 4: 787799.
  • 3
    Qiao, H., Andrade, M. V., Lisboa, F. A., Morgan, K. and Beaven, M. A., FcεR1 and toll-like receptors mediate synergistic signals to markedly augment production of inflammatory cytokines in murine mast cells. Blood 2006. 107: 610618.
  • 4
    Gilfillan, A. M. and Tkaczyk, C., Integrated signalling pathways for mast-cell activation. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2006. 6: 218230.
  • 5
    Rivera, J. and Gilfillan, A. M., Molecular regulation of mast cell activation. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2006. 117: 12141225; quiz 1226.
  • 6
    Tkaczyk, C., Jensen, B. M., Iwaki, S. and Gilfillan, A. M., Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses. Immunol. Allergy Clin. North Am. 2006. 26: 427450.
  • 7
    Hořejší, V., Zhang, W. and Schraven, B., Transmembrane adaptor proteins: organizers of immunoreceptor signalling. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2004. 4: 603616.
  • 8
    Iwaki, S., Jensen, B. M. and Gilfillan, A. M., NTAL/LAB/LAT2. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2007. 39: 868873.
  • 9
    Turnbull, I. R. and Colonna, M., Activating and inhibitory functions of DAP12. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2007. 7: 155161.
  • 10
    Mason, L. H., Willette-Brown, J., Taylor, L. S. and McVicar, D. W., Regulation of Ly49D/DAP12 signal transduction by Src-family kinases and CD45. J. Immunol. 2006. 176: 66156623.
  • 11
    McVicar, D. W., Taylor, L. S., Gosselin, P., Willette-Brown, J., Mikhael, A. I., Geahlen, R. L., Nakamura, M. C. et al., DAP12-mediated signal transduction in natural killer cells. A dominant role for the Syk protein-tyrosine kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 1998. 273: 3293432942.
  • 12
    Huyer, G., Liu, S., Kelly, J., Moffat, J., Payette, P., Kennedy, B., Tsaprailis, G. et al., Mechanism of inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases by vanadate and pervanadate. J. Biol. Chem. 1997. 272: 843851.
  • 13
    Kulka, M., Alexopoulou, L., Flavell, R. A. and Metcalfe, D. D., Activation of mast cells by double-stranded RNA: evidence for activation through Toll-like receptor 3. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2004. 114: 174182.
  • 14
    Chu, C. L., Yu, Y. L., Shen, K. Y., Lowell, C. A., Lanier, L. L. and Hamerman, J. A., Increased TLR responses in dendritic cells lacking the ITAM-containing adapters DAP12 and FcRγ. Eur. J. Immunol. 2008. 38: 166173.
  • 15
    Hamerman, J. A., Tchao, N. K., Lowell, C. A. and Lanier, L. L., Enhanced Toll-like receptor responses in the absence of signaling adaptor DAP12. Nat. Immunol. 2005. 6: 579586.
  • 16
    Turnbull, I. R., McDunn, J. E., Takai, T., Townsend, R. R., Cobb, J. P. and Colonna, M., DAP12 (KARAP) amplifies inflammation and increases mortality from endotoxemia and septic peritonitis. J. Exp. Med. 2005. 202: 363369.
  • 17
    Lawson, D., Fewtrell, C. and Raff, M. C., Localized mast cell degranulation induced by concanavalin A-sepharose beads. Implications for the Ca2+ hypothesis of stimulus–secretion coupling. J. Cell Biol. 1978. 79: 394400.
  • 18
    Ivashkiv, L. B., Cross-regulation of signaling by ITAM-associated receptors. Nat. Immunol. 2009. 10: 340347.
  • 19
    Kenny, E. F. and O'Neill, L. A., Signalling adaptors used by Toll-like receptors: an update. Cytokine 2008. 43: 342349.
  • 20
    Oda, K. and Kitano, H., A comprehensive map of the toll-like receptor signaling network. Mol. Syst. Biol. 2006. 2: 0015.
  • 21
    Furuta, T., Imajo-Ohmi, S., Fukuda, H., Kano, S., Miyake, K. and Watanabe, N., Mast cell-mediated immune responses through IgE antibody and Toll-like receptor 4 by malarial peroxiredoxin. Eur. J. Immunol. 2008. 38: 13411350.
  • 22
    Kikawada, E., Bonventre, J. V. and Arm, J. P., Group V secretory PLA2 regulates TLR2-dependent eicosanoid generation in mouse mast cells through amplification of ERK and cPLA2α activation. Blood 2007. 110: 561567.
  • 23
    Linnekin, D., Early signaling pathways activated by c-Kit in hematopoietic cells. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 1999. 31: 10531074.
  • 24
    Costello, P. S., Turner, M., Walters, A. E., Cunningham, C. N., Bauer, P. H., Downward, J. and Tybulewicz, V. L., Critical role for the tyrosine kinase Syk in signalling through the high affinity IgE receptor of mast cells. Oncogene 1996. 13: 25952605.
  • 25
    Siraganian, R. P., Zhang, J., Suzuki, K. and Sada, K., Protein tyrosine kinase Syk in mast cell signaling. Mol. Immunol. 2002. 38: 12291233.
  • 26
    Zarbock, A., Abram, C. L., Hundt, M., Altman, A., Lowell, C. A. and Ley, K., PSGL-1 engagement by E-selectin signals through Src kinase Fgr and ITAM adapters DAP12 and FcRγ to induce slow leukocyte rolling. J. Exp. Med. 2008. 205: 23392347.
  • 27
    Aoki, N., Kimura, Y., Kimura, S., Nagato, T., Azumi, M., Kobayashi, H., Sato, K. and Tateno, M., Expression and functional role of MDL-1 (CLEC5A) in mouse myeloid lineage cells. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2009. 85: 508517.
  • 28
    Gosselin, P., Mason, L. H., Willette-Brown, J., Ortaldo, J. R., McVicar, D. W. and Anderson, S. K., Induction of DAP12 phosphorylation, calcium mobilization, and cytokine secretion by Ly49H. J. Leukoc. Biol. 1999. 66: 165171.
  • 29
    Chen, S. T., Lin, Y. L., Huang, M. T., Wu, M. F., Cheng, S. C., Lei, H. Y., Lee, C. K. et al., CLEC5A is critical for dengue-virus-induced lethal disease. Nature 2008. 453: 672676.
  • 30
    Smith, K. M., Wu, J., Bakker, A. B. H., Phillips, J. H. and Lanier, L. L., Cutting Edge: Ly-49D and Ly-49H associate with mouse DAP12 and form activating receptors. J. Immunol. 1998. 161: 710.
  • 31
    Dietrich, J., Cella, M., Seiffert, M., Buhring, H. J. and Colonna, M., Cutting edge: signal-regulatory protein β1 is a DAP12-associated activating receptor expressed in myeloid cells. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 912.
  • 32
    Blasius, A. L., Cella, M., Maldonado, J., Takai, T. and Colonna, M., Siglec-H is an IPC-specific receptor that modulates type I IFN secretion through DAP12. Blood 2006. 107: 24742476.
  • 33
    Lanier, L. L., Corliss, B., Wu, J. and Phillips, J. H., Association of DAP12 with activating CD94/NKG2C NK cell receptors. Immunity 1998. 8: 693701.
  • 34
    Kojima, T., Obata, K., Mukai, K., Sato, S., Takai, T., Minegishi, Y. and Karasuyama, H., Mast cells and basophils are selectively activated in vitro and in vivo through CD200R3 in an IgE-independent manner. J. Immunol. 2007. 179: 70937100.
  • 35
    Kuehn, H. S., Beaven, M. A., Ma, H. T., Kim, M. S., Metcalfe, D. D. and Gilfillan, A. M., Synergistic activation of phospholipases Cγ and Cβ: a novel mechanism for PI3K-independent enhancement of FcεRI-induced mast cell mediator release. Cell Signal 2008. 20: 625636.
  • 36
    Kim, M. S., Kuehn, H. S., Metcalfe, D. D. and Gilfillan, A. M., Activation and function of the mTORC1 pathway in mast cells. J. Immunol. 2008. 180: 45864595.
  • 37
    Turnbull, I. R., Gilfillan, S., Cella, M., Aoshi, T., Miller, M., Piccio, L., Hernandez, M. and Colonna, M., Cutting edge: TREM-2 attenuates macrophage activation. J. Immunol. 2006. 177: 35203524.
  • 38
    Whittaker, G. C., Orr, S. J., Quigley, L., Hughes, L., Francischetti, I. M. B., Zhang, W. and McVicar, D. W., The linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/non-T cell activation linker (NTAL) regulates triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2 signaling and macrophage inflammatory responses independently of the linker for activation of T cells. J. Biol. Chem. 2010. 285: 29762985.
  • 39
    Tkaczyk, C., Horejsi, V., Iwaki, S., Draber, P., Samelson, L. E., Satterthwaite, A. B., Nahm, D. H. et al., NTAL phosphorylation is a pivotal link between the signaling cascades leading to human mast cell degranulation following Kit activation and FcεRI aggregation. Blood 2004. 104: 207214.
  • 40
    Amoui, M., Dráberová, L., Tolar, P. and Dráber, P., Direct interaction of Syk and Lyn protein tyrosine kinases in rat basophilic leukemia cells activated via type I Fcε receptors. Eur. J. Immunol. 1997. 27: 321328.
  • 41
    Choi, O. H., Lee, J. H., Kassessinoff, T., Cunha-Melo, J. R., Jones, S. V. P. and Beaven, M. A., Antigen and carbachol mobilize calcium by similar mechanisms in a transfected mast cell line (RBL-2H3 cells) that expresses ml muscarinic receptors. J. Immunol. 1993. 151: 55865595.
  • 42
    Tkaczyk, C., Metcalfe, D. D. and Gilfillan, A. M., Determination of protein phosphorylation in FcεRI-activated human mast cells by immunoblot analysis requires protein extraction under denaturing conditions. J. Immunol. Methods 2002. 268: 239243.