• 1
    Carreras, E., Veno-occlusive disease of the liver after hemopoietic cell transplantation. Eur. J. Haematol. 2000. 64: 281291.
  • 2
    Harrison, P. M., Keays, R., Bray, G. P., Alexander, G. J. and Williams, R., Improved outcome of paracetamol-induced fulminant hepatic failure by late administration of acetylcysteine. Lancet 1990. 335: 15721573.
  • 3
    De Benedetto, F., Aceto, A., Dragani, B., Spacone, A., Formisano, S., Pela, R., Donner, C. F. and Sanguinetti, C. M., Long-term oral n-acetylcysteine reduces exhaled hydrogen peroxide in stable COPD. Pulm. Pharmacol. Ther. 2005. 18: 4147.
  • 4
    Breitkreutz, R., Pittack, N., Nebe, C. T., Schuster, D., Brust, J., Beichert, M., Hack, V. et al., Improvement of immune functions in HIV infection by sulfur supplementation: two randomized trials. J. Mol. Med. 2000. 78: 5562.
  • 5
    De Rosa, S. C., Zaretsky, M. D., Dubs, J. G., Roederer, M., Anderson, M., Green, A., Mitra, D. et al., N-acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione in HIV infection. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 2000. 30: 915929.
  • 6
    Ringden, O., Remberger, M., Lehmann, S., Hentschke, P., Mattsson, J., Klaesson, S. and Aschan, J., N-acetylcysteine for hepatic veno-occlusive disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000. 25: 993996.
  • 7
    Barkholt, L., Remberger, M., Hassan, Z., Fransson, K., Omazic, B., Svahn, B. M., Karlsson, H. et al., A prospective randomized study using N-acetyl-L-cysteine for early liver toxicity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2008. 41: 785790.
  • 8
    Schreck, R., Rieber, P. and Baeuerle, P. A., Reactive oxygen intermediates as apparently widely used messengers in the activation of the NF-kappa B transcription factor and HIV-1. EMBO J. 1991. 10: 22472258.
  • 9
    Krakauer, T. and Buckley, M., The potency of anti-oxidants in attenuating superantigen-induced proinflammatory cytokines correlates with inactivation of NF-kappaB. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 2008. 30: 163179.
  • 10
    Vosters, O., Neve, J., De Wit, D., Willems, F., Goldman, M. and Verhasselt, V., Dendritic cells exposed to nacystelyn are refractory to maturation and promote the emergence of alloreactive regulatory t cells. Transplantation 2003. 75: 383389.
  • 11
    Verhasselt, V., Vanden Berghe, W., Vanderheyde, N., Willems, F., Haegeman, G. and Goldman, M., N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibits primary human T cell responses at the dendritic cell level: association with NF-kappaB inhibition. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 25692574.
  • 12
    Delneste, Y., Jeannin, P., Potier, L., Romero, P. and Bonnefoy, J. Y., N-acetyl-L-cysteine exhibits antitumoral activity by increasing tumor necrosis factor alpha-dependent T-cell cytotoxicity. Blood 1997. 90: 11241132.
  • 13
    Yim, C. Y., Hibbs, J. B. Jr., McGregor, J. R., Galinsky, R. E. and Samlowski, W. E., Use of N-acetyl cysteine to increase intracellular glutathione during the induction of antitumor responses by IL-2. J. Immunol. 1994. 152: 57965805.
  • 14
    Mathias, C., Mick, R., Grupp, S., Duffy, K., Harris, F., Laport, G., Stadtmauer, E. et al., Soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentration as a biochemical indicator for acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J. Hematother. Stem Cell Res. 2000. 9: 393400.
  • 15
    Remberger, M. and Ringden, O., Increased levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in veno-occlusive disease of the liver after allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 1995. 60: 12931299.
  • 16
    Prescott, L. F., Donovan, J. W., Jarvie, D. R. and Proudfoot, A. T., The disposition and kinetics of intravenous N-acetylcysteine in patients with paracetamol overdosage. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1989. 37: 501506.
  • 17
    Messina, J. P. and Lawrence, D. A., Cell cycle progression of glutathione-depleted human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is inhibited at S phase. J. Immunol. 1989. 143: 19741981.
  • 18
    Gloire, G., Legrand-Poels, S. and Piette, J., NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2006. 72: 14931505.
  • 19
    Eylar, E., Rivera-Quinones, C., Molina, C., Baez, I., Molina, F. and Mercado, C. M., N-acetylcysteine enhances T cell functions and T cell growth in culture. Int. Immunol. 1993. 5: 97101.
  • 20
    Svahn, B. M., Remberger, M., Myrback, K. E., Holmberg, K., Eriksson, B., Hentschke, P., Aschan, J. et al., Home care during the pancytopenic phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is advantageous compared with hospital care. Blood 2002. 100: 43174324.
  • 21
    Remberger, M. and Sundberg, B., Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor affects serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptors after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Haematologica 2005. 90: 427429.
  • 22
    Adachi, K., Kumamoto, T. and Araki, S., Interleukin-2 receptor levels indicating relapse in multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1989. 1: 559560.
  • 23
    Lindqvist, C. A., Christiansson, L. H., Simonsson, B., Enblad, G., Olsson-Stromberg, U. and Loskog, A. S., T regulatory cells control T-cell proliferation partly by the release of soluble CD25 in patients with B-cell malignancies. Immunology 2010. 131: 371376.
  • 24
    Caruso, C., Candore, G., Cigna, D., Colucci, A. T. and Modica, M. A., Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor. Mediators Inflamm. 1993. 2: 321.
  • 25
    Borgstrom, L., Kagedal, B. and Paulsen, O., Pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine in man. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1986. 31: 217222.
  • 26
    Smyth, M. J., Glutathione modulates activation-dependent proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocyte populations without regulating their activated function. J. Immunol. 1991. 146: 19211927.
  • 27
    Suthanthiran, M., Anderson, M. E., Sharma, V. K. and Meister, A., Glutathione regulates activation-dependent DNA synthesis in highly purified normal human T lymphocytes stimulated via the CD2 and CD3 antigens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1990. 87: 33433347.
  • 28
    Jones, D. P., Maellaro, E., Jiang, S., Slater, A. F. and Orrenius, S., Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on T-cell apoptosis are not mediated by increased cellular glutathione. Immunol. Lett. 1995. 45: 205209.
  • 29
    Kalamasz, D., Long, S. A., Taniguchi, R., Buckner, J. H., Berenson, R. J. and Bonyhadi, M., Optimization of human T-cell expansion ex vivo using magnetic beads conjugated with anti-CD3 and Anti-CD28 antibodies. J. Immunother. 2004. 27: 405418.
  • 30
    Emet, S., Memis, D. and Pamukcu, Z., The influence of N-acetyl-L-cystein infusion on cytokine levels and gastric intramucosal pH during severe sepsis. Crit. Care 2004. 8: R172R179.
  • 31
    Paterson, R. L., Galley, H. F. and Webster, N. R., The effect of N-acetylcysteine on nuclear factor-kappa B activation, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in patients with sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2003. 31: 25742578.
  • 32
    Peristeris, P., Clark, B. D., Gatti, S., Faggioni, R., Mantovani, A., Mengozzi, M., Orencole, S. F. et al., N-acetylcysteine and glutathione as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor production. Cell Immunol. 1992. 140: 390399.
  • 33
    Cavallini, L. and Alexandre, A., Oral N-acetyl-cysteome increases the production of anti HIV chemokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Life Sci. 2000. 67: 147154.
  • 34
    Ringden, O., Labopin, M., Gluckman, E., Reiffers, J., Vernant, J. P., Jouet, J. P., Harrousseau, J. L. et al., Graft-versus-leukemia effect in allogeneic marrow transplant recipients with acute leukemia is maintained using cyclosporin A combined with methotrexate as prophylaxis. Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996. 18: 921929.
  • 35
    Horowitz, M. M., Gale, R. P., Sondel, P. M., Goldman, J. M., Kersey, J., Kolb, H. J., Rimm, A. A. et al., Graft-versus-leukemia reactions after bone marrow transplantation. Blood 1990. 75: 555562.
  • 36
    Weiden, P. L., Flournoy, N., Thomas, E. D., Prentice, R., Fefer, A., Buckner, C. D. and Storb, R., Antileukemic effect of graft-versus-host disease in human recipients of allogeneic-marrow grafts. N. Engl. J. Med. 1979. 300: 10681073.
  • 37
    Kolb, H. J., Mittermuller, J., Clemm, C., Holler, E., Ledderose, G., Brehm, G., Heim, M. and Wilmanns, W., Donor leukocyte transfusions for treatment of recurrent chronic myelogenous leukemia in marrow transplant patients. Blood 1990. 76: 24622465.
  • 38
    Ringden, O., Remberger, M., Persson, U., Ljungman, P., Aldener, A., Andstrom, E., Aschan, J. et al., Similar incidence of graft-versus-host disease using HLA-A, -B and -DR identical unrelated bone marrow donors as with HLA-identical siblings. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1995. 15: 619625.
  • 39
    Storb, R., Deeg, H. J., Fisher, L., Appelbaum, F., Buckner, C. D., Bensinger, W., Clift, R. et al., Cyclosporine v methotrexate for graft-v-host disease prevention in patients given marrow grafts for leukemia: long-term follow-up of three controlled trials. Blood 1988. 71: 293298.
  • 40
    Glucksberg, H., Storb, R., Fefer, A., Buckner, C. D., Neiman, P. E., Clift, R. A., Lerner, K. G. and Thomas, E. D., Clinical manifestations of graft-versus-host disease in human recipients of marrow from HL-A-matched sibling donors. Transplantation 1974. 18: 295304.
  • 41
    Hentschke, P., Barkholt, L., Uzunel, M., Mattsson, J., Wersall, P., Pisa, P., Martola, J. et al., Low-intensity conditioning and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with renal and colon carcinoma. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003. 31: 253261.
  • 42
    Niederwieser, D., Maris, M., Shizuru, J. A., Petersdorf, E., Hegenbart, U., Sandmaier, B. M., Maloney, D. G. et al., Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) and fludarabine followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-matched or mismatched unrelated donors and postgrafting immunosuppression with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) can induce durable complete chimerism and sustained remissions in patients with hematological diseases. Blood 2003. 101: 16201629.
  • 43
    Ringden, O., Labopin, M., Gorin, N. C., Le Blanc, K., Rocha, V., Gluckman, E., Reiffers, J. et al., Treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia increases the risk of graft-versus-host disease and death: a study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. J. Clin. Oncol. 2004. 22: 416423.
  • 44
    Ruutu, T., Eriksson, B., Remes, K., Juvonen, E., Volin, L., Remberger, M., Parkkali, T. et al., Ursodeoxycholic acid for the prevention of hepatic complications in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood 2002. 100: 19771983.
  • 45
    Samarasinghe, S., Mancao, C., Pule, M., Nawroly, N., Karlsson, H., Brewin, J., Openshaw, P. et al., Functional characterization of alloreactive T cells identifies CD25 and CD71 as optimal targets for a clinically applicable allodepletion strategy. Blood 2010. 115: 396407.
  • 46
    Jonuleit, H., Kuhn, U., Muller, G., Steinbrink, K., Paragnik, L., Schmitt, E., Knop, J. and Enk, A. H., Pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins induce maturation of potent immunostimulatory dendritic cells under fetal calf serum-free conditions. Eur. J. Immunol. 1997. 27: 31353142.