• 1
    Freitas, A. A. and Rocha, B., Population biology of lymphocytes: the flight for survival. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2000. 18: 83111.
  • 2
    Rocha, B. and Tanchot, C., CD8 T cell memory. Semin. Immunol. 2004. 16: 305314.
  • 3
    Gourley, T. S., Wherry, E. J., Masopust, D. and Ahmed, R., Generation and maintenance of immunological memory. Semin. Immunol. 2004. 16: 323333.
  • 4
    Sallusto, F., Geginat, J. and Lanzavecchia, A., Central memory and effector memory T cell subsets: function, generation, and maintenance. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2004. 22: 745763.
  • 5
    Almeida, A. R., Rocha, B., Freitas, A. A. and Tanchot, C., Homeostasis of T cell numbers: from thymus production to peripheral compartmentalization and the indexation of regulatory T cells. Semin. Immunol. 2005. 17: 239249.
  • 6
    Rocha, B., Dautigny, N. and Pereira, P., Peripheral T lymphocytes: expansion potential and homeostatic regulation of pool sizes and CD4/CD8 ratios in vivo. Eur. J. Immunol. 1989. 19: 905911.
  • 7
    Goldrath, A. W. and Bevan, M. J., Low-affinity ligands for the TCR drive proliferation of mature CD8+ T cells in lymphopenic hosts. Immunity 1999. 11: 183190.
  • 8
    Ernst, B., Lee, D. S., Chang, J. M., Sprent, J. and Surh, C. D., The peptide ligands mediating positive selection in the thymus control T cell survival and homeostatic proliferation in the periphery. Immunity 1999. 11: 173181.
  • 9
    Jameson, S. C., Maintaining the norm: T-cell homeostasis. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 2: 547556.
  • 10
    Williams, K. M., Hakim, F. T. and Gress, R. E., T cell immune reconstitution following lymphodepletion. Semin. Immunol. 2007. 19: 318330.
  • 11
    Gattinoni, L., Powell, D. J.,Jr., Rosenberg, S. A. and Restifo, N. P., Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: building on success. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2006. 6: 383393.
  • 12
    Tanchot, C., Le Campion, A., Martin, B., Leaument, S., Dautigny, N. and Lucas, B., Conversion of naive T cells to a memory-like phenotype in lymphopenic hosts is not related to a homeostatic mechanism that fills the peripheral naive T cell pool. J. Immunol. 2002. 168: 50425046.
  • 13
    Kieper, W. C., Burghardt, J. T. and Surh, C. D., A role for TCR affinity in regulating naive T cell homeostasis. J. Immunol. 2004. 172: 4044.
  • 14
    Min, B., Yamane, H., Hu-Li, J. and Paul, W. E., Spontaneous and homeostatic proliferation of CD4 T cells are regulated by different mechanisms. J. Immunol. 2005. 174: 60396044.
  • 15
    Sakaguchi, S., Naturally arising CD4+ regulatory t cells for immunologic self-tolerance and negative control of immune responses. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2004. 22: 531562.
  • 16
    Coombes, J. L., Robinson, N. J., Maloy, K. J., Uhlig, H. H. and Powrie, F., Regulatory T cells and intestinal homeostasis. Immunol. Rev. 2005. 204: 184194.
  • 17
    Winstead, C. J., Fraser, J. M. and Khoruts, A., Regulatory CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells selectively inhibit the spontaneous form of lymphopenia-induced proliferation of naive T cells. J. Immunol. 2008. 180: 73057317.
  • 18
    Winstead, C. J., Reilly, C. S., Moon, J. J., Jenkins, M. K., Hamilton, S. E., Jameson, S. C., Way, S. S. and Khoruts, A., CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells optimize diversity of the conventional T cell repertoire during reconstitution from lymphopenia. J. Immunol. 2010. 184: 47494760.
  • 19
    Sallusto, F., Lenig, D., Forster, R., Lipp, M. and Lanzavecchia, A., Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing potentials and effector functions. Nature 1999. 401: 708712.
  • 20
    Malissen, M., Gillet, A., Ardouin, L., Bouvier, G., Trucy, J., Ferrier, P., Vivier, E. and Malissen, B., Altered T cell development in mice with a targeted mutation of the CD3-epsilon gene. EMBO J. 1995. 14: 46414653.
  • 21
    Morrissey, P. J., Charrier, K., Braddy, S., Liggitt, D. and Watson, J. D., CD4+ T cells that express high levels of CD45RB induce wasting disease when transferred into congenic severe combined immunodeficient mice. Disease development is prevented by cotransfer of purified CD4+ T cells. J. Exp. Med. 1993. 178: 237244.
  • 22
    Sakaguchi, S., Sakaguchi, N., Asano, M., Itoh, M. and Toda, M., Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single mechanism of self-tolerance causes various autoimmune diseases. J. Immun. 1995. 155: 11511164.
  • 23
    Annacker, O., Burlen-Defranoux, O., Pimenta-Araujo, R., Cumano, A. and Bandeira, A., Regulatory CD4 T cells control the size of the peripheral activated/memory CD4 T cell compartment. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 35733580.
  • 24
    Almeida, A. R. M., Legrand, N., Papiernick, M. and Freitas, A. A., Homeostasis of peripheral CD4+ T cells: IL2Rα and IL-2 shape a population of regulatory cells that controls CD4+ T cell numbers. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 48504860.
  • 25
    Tajima, M., Wakita, D., Noguchi, D., Chamoto, K., Yue, Z., Fugo, K., Ishigame, H. et al., IL-6-dependent spontaneous proliferation is required for the induction of colitogenic IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells. J. Exp. Med. 2008. 205: 10191027.
  • 26
    Almeida, A. R., Borghans, J. A. and Freitas, A. A., T cell homeostasis: thymus regeneration and peripheral T cell restoration in mice with a reduced fraction of competent precursors. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 194: 591599.
  • 27
    Mackall, C. L., Granger, L., Sheard, M. A., Cepeda, R. and Gress, R. E., T-cell regeneration after bone marrow transplantation: differential CD45 isoform expression on thymic-derived versus thymic-independent progeny. Blood 1993. 82: 25852594.
  • 28
    Ramsey, C., Rubinstein, M. P., Kim, D. M., Cho, J. H., Sprent, J. and Surh, C. D., The lymphopenic environment of CD132 (common gamma-chain)-deficient hosts elicits rapid homeostatic proliferation of naive T cells via IL-15. J. Immunol. 2008. 180: 53205326.
  • 29
    Tan, J. T., Ernst, B., Kieper, W. C., LeRoy, E., Sprent, J. and Surh, C. D., Interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-7 jointly regulate homeostatic proliferation of memory phenotype CD8(+) cells but are not required for memory phenotype CD4(+) cells. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 195: 15231532.
  • 30
    Huster, K. M., Stemberger, C. and Busch, D. H., Protective immunity towards intracellular pathogens. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2006. 18: 458464.
  • 31
    Poitrasson-Riviere, M., Bienvenu, B., Le Campion, A., Becourt, C., Martin, B. and Lucas, B., Regulatory CD4+ T cells are crucial for preventing CD8+ T cell-mediated autoimmunity. J. Immunol. 2008. 180: 72947304.
  • 32
    Annacker, O., Pimenta-Araujo, R., Burlen-Defranoux, O., Barbosa, T. C., Cumano, A. and Bandeira, A., CD25+CD4+T cells regulate the expansion of peripheral CD4 T cells through the production of IL-10. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 30083018.
  • 33
    Lyons, A. B. and Parish, C. R., Determination of lymphocyte division by flow cytometry. J. Immunol. Methods 1994. 171: 131137.