• 1
    Swiecki, M. and Colonna, M., Accumulation of plasmacytoid DC: Roles in disease pathogenesis and targets for immunotherapy. Eur. J. Immunol. 2010. 40: 20942098.
  • 2
    Swiecki, M. and Colonna, M., Unraveling the functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells during viral infections, autoimmunity, and tolerance. Immunol. Rev. 2010. 234: 142162.
  • 3
    Moseman, E. A., Liang, X., Dawson, A. J., Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A., Krieg, A. M., Liu, Y. J., Blazar, B. R. and Chen, W., Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells activated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induce the generation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J. Immunol. 2004. 173: 44334442.
  • 4
    Nikolic, T., Welzen-Coppens, J. M., Leenen, P. J., Drexhage, H. A. and Versnel, M. A., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in autoimmune diabetes - potential tools for immunotherapy. Immunobiology 2009. 214: 791799.
  • 5
    Villadangos, J. A. and Young, L., Antigen-presentation properties of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Immunity 2008. 29: 352361.
  • 6
    Gilliet, M., Cao, W. and Liu, Y. J., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection and autoimmune diseases. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2008. 8: 594606.
  • 7
    Naik, S. H., Sathe, P., Park, H. Y., Metcalf, D., Proietto, A. I., Dakic, A., Carotta, S. et al., Development of plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cell subtypes from single precursor cells derived in vitro and in vivo. Nat. Immunol. 2007. 8: 12171226.
  • 8
    Onai, N., Obata-Onai, A., Schmid, M. A., Ohteki, T., Jarrossay, D. and Manz, M. G., Identification of clonogenic common Flt3+M-CSFR+plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cell progenitors in mouse bone marrow. Nat. Immunol. 2007. 8: 12071216.
  • 9
    Reizis, B., Regulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell development. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2010. 22: 206211.
  • 10
    Cisse, B., Caton, M. L., Lehner, M., Maeda, T., Scheu, S., Locksley, R., Holmberg, D. et al., Transcription factor E2-2 is an essential and specific regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell development. Cell 2008. 135: 3748.
  • 11
    Honda, K., Yanai, H., Negishi, H., Asagiri, M., Sato, M., Mizutani, T., Shimada, N. et al., IRF-7 is the master regulator of type-I interferon-dependent immune responses. Nature 2005. 434: 772777.
  • 12
    Schotte, R., Nagasawa, M., Weijer, K., Spits, H. and Blom, B., The ETS transcription factor Spi-B is required for human plasmacytoid dendritic cell development. J. Exp. Med. 2004. 200: 15031509.
  • 13
    Hochrein, H., O'Keeffe, M. and Wagner, H., Human and mouse plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Hum. Immunol. 2002. 63: 11031110.
  • 14
    Dzionek, A., Sohma, Y., Nagafune, J., Cella, M., Colonna, M., Facchetti, F., Gunther, G. et al., BDCA-2, a novel plasmacytoid dendritic cell-specific type II C-type lectin, mediates antigen capture and is a potent inhibitor of interferon alpha/beta induction. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 194: 18231834.
  • 15
    Jahnsen, F. L., Lund-Johansen, F., Dunne, J. F., Farkas, L., Haye, R. and Brandtzaeg, P., Experimentally induced recruitment of plasmacytoid (CD123high) dendritic cells in human nasal allergy. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 40624068.
  • 16
    Cao, W. and Bover, L., Signaling and ligand interaction of ILT7: receptor-mediated regulatory mechanisms for plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Immunol. Rev. 2010. 234: 163176.
  • 17
    Blasius, A. L., Giurisato, E., Cella, M., Schreiber, R. D., Shaw, A. S. and Colonna, M., Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 is a specific marker of type I IFN-producing cells in the naive mouse, but a promiscuous cell surface antigen following IFN stimulation. J. Immunol. 2006. 177: 32603265.
  • 18
    Zhang, J., Raper, A., Sugita, N., Hingorani, R., Salio, M., Palmowski, M. J., Cerundolo, V. and Crocker, P. R., Characterization of Siglec-H as a novel endocytic receptor expressed on murine plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors. Blood 2006. 107: 36003608.
  • 19
    Omatsu, Y., Iyoda, T., Kimura, Y., Maki, A., Ishimori, M., Toyama-Sorimachi, N. and Inaba, K., Development of murine plasmacytoid dendritic cells defined by increased expression of an inhibitory NK receptor, Ly49Q. J. Immunol. 2005. 174: 66576662.
  • 20
    Hadeiba, H., Sato, T., Habtezion, A., Oderup, C., Pan, J. and Butcher, E. C., CCR9 expression defines tolerogenic plasmacytoid dendritic cells able to suppress acute graft-versus-host disease. Nat. Immunol. 2008. 9: 12531260.
  • 21
    Workman, C. J., Wang, Y., El Kasmi, K. C., Pardoll, D. M., Murray, P. J., Drake, C. G. and Vignali, D. A., LAG-3 regulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell homeostasis. J. Immunol. 2009. 182: 18851891.
  • 22
    Workman, C. J. and Vignali, D. A., The CD4-related molecule, LAG-3 (CD223), regulates the expansion of activated T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 2003. 33: 970979.
  • 23
    Martin-Gayo, E., Sierra-Filardi, E., Corbi, A. L. and Toribio, M. L., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells resident in human thymus drive natural Treg cell development. Blood 2010. 115: 53665375.
  • 24
    Hanabuchi, S., Ito, T., Park, W. R., Watanabe, N., Shaw, J. L., Roman, E., Arima, K. et al., Thymic stromal lymphopoietin-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce the generation of FOXP3+regulatory T cells in human thymus. J. Immunol. 2010. 184: 29993007.
  • 25
    Young, L. J., Wilson, N. S., Schnorrer, P., Proietto, A., ten Broeke, T., Matsuki, Y., Mount, A. M. et al., Differential MHC class II synthesis and ubiquitination confers distinct antigen-presenting properties on conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nat. Immunol. 2008. 9: 12441252.
  • 26
    Liu, Y.-J., IPC: professional type 1 interferon-producing cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2005. 23: 275306.
  • 27
    Tokita, D., Sumpter, T. L., Raimondi, G., Zahorchak, A. F., Wang, Z., Nakao, A., Mazariegos, G. V. et al., Poor allostimulatory function of liver plasmacytoid DC is associated with pro-apoptotic activity, dependent on regulatory T cells. J. Hepatol. 2008. 49: 10081018.
  • 28
    Castellaneta, A., Sumpter, T. L., Chen, L., Tokita, D. and Thomson, A. W., NOD2 ligation subverts IFN-alpha production by liver plasmacytoid dendritic cells and inhibits their T Cell Allostimulatory activity via B7-H1 up-regulation. J. Immunol. 2009. 183: 69226932.
  • 29
    Negishi, H., Ohba, Y., Yanai, H., Takaoka, A., Honma, K., Yui, K., Matsuyama, T. et al., Negative regulation of Toll-like-receptor signaling by IRF-4. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005. 102: 1598915994.
  • 30
    Bianchi, M. E., DAMPs, PAMPs and alarmins: all we need to know about danger. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2007. 81: 15.
  • 31
    Popovic, P. J., DeMarco, R., Lotze, M. T., Winikoff, S. E., Bartlett, D. L., Krieg, A. M., Guo, Z. S., 3rd, et al., High mobility group B1 protein suppresses the human plasmacytoid dendritic cell response to TLR9 agonists. J. Immunol. 2006. 177: 87018707.
  • 32
    Crispe, I. N., The liver as a lymphoid organ. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2009. 27: 147163.
  • 33
    Goubier, A., Dubois, B., Gheit, H., Joubert, G., Villard-Truc, F., Asselin-Paturel, C., Trinchieri, G. and Kaiserlian, D., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells mediate oral tolerance. Immunity 2008. 29: 464475.
  • 34
    Matta, B. M., Colvin, B. L., Sumpter, T. L. and Thomson, A. W., Host-derived plasmacytoid dendritic cells prolong cardiac allograft survival and regulate alloreactive T cell responses via B7 homolog-1. Am. J. Transplant. 2009. 9: 362 [Abstract 593].
  • 35
    Yoshida, H. and Miyazaki, Y., Regulation of immune responses by interleukin-27. Immunol. Rev. 2008. 226: 234247.
  • 36
    Matta, B. M., Sumpter, T. L., Raimondi, G. and Thomson, A. W., Liver DC modulate Foxp3 expression in allogeneic CD4+ T cells via IL-27. Am. J. Transplant. 2010. 10: 94 (Abstract 178).
  • 37
    Tiegs, G. and Lohse, A. W., Immune tolerance: what is unique about the liver. J. Autoimmun. 2010. 34: 16.
  • 38
    Sharma, M. D., Baban, B., Chandler, P., Hou, D. Y., Singh, N., Yagita, H., Azuma, M. et al., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells from mouse tumor-draining lymph nodes directly activate mature Tregs via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. J. Clin. Invest. 2007. 117: 25702582.
  • 39
    Ochando, J. C., Homma, C., Yang, Y., Hidalgo, A., Garin, A., Tacke, F., Angeli, V. et al., Alloantigen-presenting plasmacytoid dendritic cells mediate tolerance to vascularized grafts. Nat. Immunol. 2006. 7: 652662.
  • 40
    Ouabed, A., Hubert, F. X., Chabannes, D., Gautreau, L., Heslan, M. and Josien, R., Differential control of T regulatory cell proliferation and suppressive activity by mature plasmacytoid versus conventional spleen dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 2008. 180: 58625870.
  • 41
    De Gassart, A., Camosseto, V., Thibodeau, J., Ceppi, M., Catalan, N., Pierre, P. and Gatti, E., MHC class II stabilization at the surface of human dendritic cells is the result of maturation-dependent MARCH I down-regulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2008. 105: 34913496.
  • 42
    Kang, H. K., Liu, M. and Datta, S. K., Low-dose peptide tolerance therapy of lupus generates plasmacytoid dendritic cells that cause expansion of autoantigen-specific regulatory T cells and contraction of inflammatory Th17 cells. J. Immunol. 2007. 178: 78497858.
  • 43
    Turner, M. S., Kane, L. P. and Morel, P. A., Dominant role of antigen dose in CD4+Foxp3+regulatory T cell induction and expansion. J. Immunol. 2009. 183: 48954903.
  • 44
    Zaballos, A., Gutierrez, J., Varona, R., Ardavin, C. and Marquez, G., Cutting edge: identification of the orphan chemokine receptor GPR-9-6 as CCR9, the receptor for the chemokine TECK. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 56715675.
  • 45
    Wurbel, M. A., Philippe, J. M., Nguyen, C., Victorero, G., Freeman, T., Wooding, P., Miazek, A. et al., The chemokine TECK is expressed by thymic and intestinal epithelial cells and attracts double- and single-positive thymocytes expressing the TECK receptor CCR9. Eur. J. Immunol. 2000. 30: 262271.
  • 46
    Kunkel, E. J., Campbell, J. J., Haraldsen, G., Pan, J., Boisvert, J., Roberts, A. I., Ebert, E. C. et al., Lymphocyte CC chemokine receptor 9 and epithelial thymus-expressed chemokine (TECK) expression distinguish the small intestinal immune compartment: Epithelial expression of tissue-specific chemokines as an organizing principle in regional immunity. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 192: 761768.
  • 47
    Wendland, M., Czeloth, N., Mach, N., Malissen, B., Kremmer, E., Pabst, O. and Forster, R., CCR9 is a homing receptor for plasmacytoid dendritic cells to the small intestine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007. 104: 63476352.
  • 48
    Segura, E., Wong, J. and Villadangos, J. A., Cutting edge: B220+CCR9- dendritic cells are not plasmacytoid dendritic cells but are precursors of conventional dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 2009. 183: 15141517.
  • 49
    De Heer, H. J., Hammad, H., Soullie, T., Hijdra, D., Vos, N., Willart, M. A., Hoogsteden, H. C. and Lambrecht, B. N., Essential role of lung plasmacytoid dendritic cells in preventing asthmatic reactions to harmless inhaled antigen. J. Exp. Med. 2004. 200: 8998.
  • 50
    Abe, M., Colvin, B. L. and Thomson, A. W., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: in vivo regulators of alloimmune reactivity? Transplant. Proc. 2005. 37: 41194121.
  • 51
    Abe, M., Wang, Z., De Creus, A. and Thomson, A. W., Plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors induce allogeneic T cell hyporesponsiveness and prolong heart graft survival. Am. J. Transplant. 2005. 5: 18081819.
  • 52
    Arpinati, M., Chirumbolo, G., Urbini, B., Perrone, G., Rondelli, D. and Anasetti, C., Role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in immunity and tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Transpl. Immunol. 2003. 11: 345356.
  • 53
    Fugier-Vivier, I. J., Rezzoug, F., Huang, Y., Graul-Layman, A. J., Schanie, C. L., Xu, H., Chilton, P. M. and Ildstad, S. T., Plasmacytoid precursor dendritic cells facilitate allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell engraftment. J. Exp. Med. 2005. 201: 373383.
  • 54
    Ito, T., Yang, M., Wang, Y. H., Lande, R., Gregorio, J., Perng, O. A., Qin, X. F. et al., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells prime IL-10-producing T regulatory cells by inducible costimulator ligand. J. Exp. Med. 2007. 204: 105115.
  • 55
    Colvin, B. L., Sumpter, T. L., Tokita, D., Salati, J., Mellor, A. L. and Thomson, A. W., Allostimulatory activity of bone marrow-derived plasmacytoid dendritic cells is independent of indoleamine dioxygenase but regulated by inducible costimulator ligand expression. Hum. Immunol. 2009. 70: 313320.
  • 56
    Bjorck, P., Coates, P. T., Wang, Z., Duncan, F. J. and Thomson, A. W., Promotion of long-term heart allograft survival by combination of mobilized donor plasmacytoid dendritic cells and anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 2005. 24: 11181120.
  • 57
    Li, X. L., Menoret, S., Bezie, S., Caron, L., Chabannes, D., Hill, M., Halary, F. et al., Mechanism and localization of CD8 regulatory T cells in a heart transplant model of tolerance. J. Immunol. 2010. 185: 823833.
  • 58
    Mazariegos, G. V., Zahorchak, A. F., Reyes, J., Chapman, H., Zeevi, A. and Thomson, A. W., Dendritic cell subset ratio in tolerant, weaning and non-tolerant liver recipients is not affected by extent of immunosuppression. Am. J. Transplant. 2005. 5: 314322.
  • 59
    Tokita, D., Mazariegos, G. V., Zahorchak, A. F., Chien, N., Abe, M., Raimondi, G. and Thomson, A. W., High PD-L1/CD86 ratio on plasmacytoid dendritic cells correlates with elevated T-regulatory cells in liver transplant tolerance. Transplantation 2008. 85: 369377.
  • 60
    Okazaki, T. and Honjo, T., The PD-1-PD-L pathway in immunological tolerance. Trends Immunol. 2006. 27: 195201.
  • 61
    Zasloff, M., Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms. Nature 2002. 415: 389395.
  • 62
    Tian, J., Avalos, A. M., Mao, S. Y., Chen, B., Senthil, K., Wu, H., Parroche, P. et al., Toll-like receptor 9-dependent activation by DNA-containing immune complexes is mediated by HMGB1 and RAGE. Nat. Immunol. 2007. 8: 487496.
  • 63
    Isaksson, M., Ardesjo, B., Ronnblom, L., Kampe, O., Lassmann, H., Eloranta, M. L. and Lobell, A., Plasmacytoid DC promote priming of autoimmune Th17 cells and EAE. Eur. J. Immunol. 2009. 39: 29252935.
  • 64
    Kavousanaki, M., Makrigiannakis, A., Boumpas, D. and Verginis, P., Novel role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in humans: induction of interleukin-10-producing Treg cells by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis responding to therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 2010. 62: 5363.
  • 65
    Jongbloed, S. L., Benson, R. A., Nickdel, M. B., Garside, P., McInnes, I. B. and Brewer, J. M., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells regulate breach of self-tolerance in autoimmune arthritis. J. Immunol. 2009. 182: 963968.
  • 66
    Saxena, V., Ondr, J. K., Magnusen, A. F., Munn, D. H. and Katz, J. D., The countervailing actions of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells control autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic mouse. J. Immunol. 2007. 179: 50415053.
  • 67
    Amuro, H., Ito, T., Miyamoto, R., Sugimoto, H., Torii, Y., Son, Y., Nakamichi, N. et al., Statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, function as inhibitors of cellular and molecular components involved in type I interferon production. Arthritis Rheum. 2010. 62: 20732085.
  • 68
    Miyamoto, R., Ito, T., Nomura, S., Amakawa, R., Amuro, H., Katashiba, Y., Ogata, M. et al., Inhibitor of IkappaB kinase activity, BAY 11-7082, interferes with interferon regulatory factor 7 nuclear translocation and type I interferon production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2010. 12: R87.
  • 69
    Jahrsdorfer, B., Vollmer, A., Blackwell, S. E., Maier, J., Sontheimer, K., Beyer, T., Mandel, B. et al., Granzyme B produced by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells suppresses T-cell expansion. Blood 2010. 115: 11561165.
  • 70
    Bratke, K., Nielsen, J., Manig, F., Klein, C., Kuepper, M., Geyer, S., Julius, P. et al., Functional expression of granzyme B in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells: a role in allergic inflammation. Clin. Exp. Allergy 2010. 40: 10151024.
  • 71
    Zou, W., Machelon, V., Coulomb-L'Hermin, A., Borvak, J., Nome, F., Isaeva, T., Wei, S. et al., Stromal-derived factor-1 in human tumors recruits and alters the function of plasmacytoid precursor dendritic cells. Nat. Med. 2001. 7: 13391346.
  • 72
    Charles, J., Di Domizio, J., Salameire, D., Bendriss-Vermare, N., Aspord, C., Muhammad, R., Lefebvre, C. et al., Characterization of circulating dendritic cells in melanoma: role of CCR6 in plasmacytoid dendritic cell recruitment to the tumor. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2010. 130: 16461656.
  • 73
    Hartmann, E., Wollenberg, B., Rothenfusser, S., Wagner, M., Wellisch, D., Mack, B., Giese, T. et al., Identification and functional analysis of tumor-infiltrating plasmacytoid dendritic cells in head and neck cancer. Cancer Res. 2003. 63: 64786487.
  • 74
    Wei, S., Kryczek, I., Zou, L., Daniel, B., Cheng, P., Mottram, P., Curiel, T. et al., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce CD8+regulatory T cells in human ovarian carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2005. 65: 50205026.
  • 75
    Munn, D. H., Sharma, M. D., Hou, D., Baban, B., Lee, J. R., Antonia, S. J., Messina, J. L. et al., Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. J. Clin. Invest. 2004. 114: 280290.
  • 76
    Sharma, M. D., Hou, D. Y., Liu, Y., Koni, P. A., Metz, R., Chandler, P., Mellor, A. L. et al., Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase controls conversion of Foxp3+Tregs to TH17-like cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. Blood 2009. 113: 61026111.
  • 77
    Manlapat, A. K., Kahler, D. J., Chandler, P. R., Munn, D. H. and Mellor, A. L., Cell-autonomous control of interferon type I expression by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in regulatory CD19+dendritic cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 2007. 37: 10641071.
  • 78
    Takahashi, K., Asabe, S., Wieland, S., Garaigorta, U., Gastaminza, P., Isogawa, M. and Chisari, F. V., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense hepatitis C virus-infected cells, produce interferon, and inhibit infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010. 107: 74317436.