• 1
    Carsetti, R., Rosado, M. M. and Wardmann, H., Peripheral development of B cells in mouse and man. Immunol. Rev. 2004. 197: 179191.
  • 2
    Kruetzmann, S., Rosado, M. M., Weber, H., Germing, U., Tournilhac, O., Peter, H. H., Berner, R. et al., Human immunoglobulin M memory B cells controlling Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are generated in the spleen. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 197: 939945.
  • 3
    Capolunghi, F., Cascioli, S., Giorda, E., Rosado, M. M., Plebani, A., Auriti, C., Seganti, G. et al., CpG drives human transitional B cells to terminal differentiation and production of natural antibodies. J. Immunol. 2008. 180: 800808.
  • 4
    Weller, S., Faili, A., Garcia, C., Braun, M. C., Le Deist, F. F., de Saint Basile, G. G., Hermine, O. et al., CD40-CD40L independent Ig gene hypermutation suggests a second B cell diversification pathway in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2001. 98: 11661170.
  • 5
    Dogan, I., Bertocci, B., Vilmont, V., Delbos, F., Megret, J., Storck, S., Reynaud, C. A. and Weill, J. C., Multiple layers of B cell memory with different effector functions. Nat. Immunol. 2009. 10: 12921299.
  • 6
    MacLennan, I. C. and Gray, D., Antigen-driven selection of virgin and memory B cells. Immunol. Rev. 1986. 91: 6185.
  • 7
    Traggiai, E., Puzone, R. and Lanzavecchia, A., Antigen dependent and independent mechanisms that sustain serum antibody levels. Vaccine 2003. 21: S35S37.
  • 8
    Bernasconi, N. L., Traggiai, E. and Lanzavecchia, A., Maintenance of serological memory by polyclonal activation of human memory B cells. Science 2002. 298: 21992202.
  • 9
    Manz, R. A., Thiel, A. and Radbruch, A., Lifetime of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Nature 1997. 388: 133134.
  • 10
    Manz, R. A., Hauser, A. E., Hiepe, F. and Radbruch, A., Maintenance of serum antibody levels. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2005. 23: 367386.
  • 11
    Mei, H. E., Yoshida, T., Sime, W., Hiepe, F., Thiele, K., Manz, R. A., Radbruch, A. and Dorner, T., Blood-borne human plasma cells in steady state are derived from mucosal immune responses. Blood 2009. 113: 24612469.
  • 12
    Good-Jacobson, K. L. and Shlomchik, M. J., Plasticity and heterogeneity in the generation of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells: the influence of germinal center interactions and dynamics. J. Immunol. 2010. 185: 31173125.
  • 13
    Heininger, U., Sanger, R., Jacquet, J. M. and Schuerman, L., Booster immunization with a hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate combination vaccine in the second year of life: safety, immunogenicity and persistence of antibody responses. Vaccine 2007. 25: 10551063.
  • 14
    Lim, F. S., Han, H. H., Jacquet, J. M. and Bock, H. L., Primary vaccination of infants against hepatitis B can be completed using a combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 2007. 36: 801806.
  • 15
    Zepp, F., Schmitt, H. J., Cleerbout, J., Verstraeten, T., Schuerman, L. and Jacquet, J. M., Review of 8 years of experience with Infanrix hexa (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib hexavalent vaccine). Expert Rev. Vaccines 2009. 8: 663678.
  • 16
    Steiner, M., Ramakrishnan, G., Gartner, B., Van Der Meeren, O., Jacquet, J. M. and Schuster, V., Lasting immune memory against hepatitis B in children after primary immunization with 4 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in the first and 2nd year of life. Biomed. Chromatogr. Infect. Dis. 2010. 10: 9.
  • 17
    Tichmann, I., Preidel, H., Grunert, D., Habash, S., Schult, R., Maier, R., Gildberg, P. K. et al., Comparison of the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of two commercially available hexavalent vaccines administered as a primary vaccination course at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Vaccine 2005. 23: 32723279.
  • 18
    Zanetti, A. R., Romano, L., Giambi, C., Pavan, A., Baitelli, G., Malchiodi, G., Valerio, A. et al., Hepatitis B immune memory in children primed with hexavalent vaccines and given monovalant booster vaccines: an open-label, randomised, controlled, multicentre study. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2010. 10: 755761.
  • 19
    Young, M. D., Schneider, D. L., Zuckerman, A. J., Du, W., Dickson, B. and Maddrey, W. C., Adult hepatitis B vaccination using a novel triple antigen recombinant vaccine. Hepatology 2001. 34: 372376.
  • 20
    Tuaillon, E., Tabaa, Y. A., Baillat, V., Petitjean, G., Reynes, J. and Vendrell, J. P., Long-term persistence of memory B cells specific for hepatitis B surface antigen in HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS 2007. 21: 23432345.
  • 21
    Valats, J. C., Tuaillon, E., Funakoshi, N., Hoa, D., Brabet, M. C., Bollore, K., Ducos, J. et al., Investigation of memory B cell responses to hepatitis B surface antigen in health care workers considered as non-responders to vaccination. Vaccine 2010. 28: 64116416.
  • 22
    Konforte, D., Simard, N. and Paige, C. J., IL-21: an executor of B cell fate. J. Immunol. 2009. 182: 17811787.
  • 23
    Bernasconi, N. L., Onai, N. and Lanzavecchia, A., A role for Toll-like receptors in acquired immunity: up-regulation of TLR9 by BCR triggering in naive B cells and constitutive expression in memory B cells. Blood 2003. 101: 45004504.
  • 24
    Ahmed, R. and Gray, D., Immunological memory and protective immunity: understanding their relation. Science 1996. 272: 5460.
  • 25
    Castellino, F., Galli, G., Del Giudice, G. and Rappuoli, R., Generating memory with vaccination. Eur. J. Immunol. 2009. 39: 21002105.
  • 26
    Plotkin, S. A., Correlates of protection induced by vaccination. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 2010. 17: 10551065.
  • 27
    Milne, A., Allwood, G. K., Pearce, N. E., Lucas, C. R. and Krugman, S., Low dose hepatitis B vaccination in children. N. Z Med. J. 1986. 99: 4749.
  • 28
    Coursaget, P., Leboulleux, D., Soumare, M., le Cann, P., Yvonnet, B., Chiron, J. P., Coll-Seck, A. M. and Diop-Mar, I., Twelve-year follow-up study of hepatitis B immunization of Senegalese infants. J. Hepatol. 1994. 21: 250254.
  • 29
    Pichichero, M. E., Blatter, M. M., Reisinger, K. S., Harrison, C. J., Johnson, C. E., Steinhoff, M. C., Senders, S. D. et al., Impact of a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine on the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b combination vaccination. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2002. 21: 854859.
  • 30
    Lanzavecchia, A., Bernasconi, N., Traggiai, E., Ruprecht, C. R., Corti, D. and Sallusto, F., Understanding and making use of human memory B cells. Immunol. Rev. 2006. 211: 303309.
  • 31
    Tokoyoda, K., Zehentmeier, S., Chang, H. D. and Radbruch, A., Organization and maintenance of immunological memory by stroma niches. Eur. J. Immunol. 2009. 39: 20952099.
  • 32
    Moser, K., Muehlinghaus, G., Manz, R., Mei, H., Voigt, C., Yoshida, T., Dorner, T. et al., Long-lived plasma cells in immunity and immunopathology. Immunol. Lett. 2006. 103: 8385.
  • 33
    Tarlinton, D., Radbruch, A., Hiepe, F. and Dorner, T., Plasma cell differentiation and survival. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2008. 20: 162169.
  • 34
    Amanna, I. J. and Slifka, M. K., Mechanisms that determine plasma cell lifespan and the duration of humoral immunity. Immunol. Rev. 2010. 236: 125138.
  • 35
    Manz, R. A., Lohning, M., Cassese, G., Thiel, A. and Radbruch, A., Survival of long-lived plasma cells is independent of antigen. Int. Immunol. 1998. 10: 17031711.
  • 36
    Pinna, D., Corti, D., Jarrossay, D., Sallusto, F. and Lanzavecchia, A., Clonal dissection of the human memory B-cell repertoire following infection and vaccination. Eur. J. Immunol. 2009. 39: 12601270.
  • 37
    Leyendeckers, H., Odendahl, M., Lohndorf, A., Irsch, J., Spangfort, M., Miltenyi, S., Hunzelmann, N. et al., Correlation analysis between frequencies of circulating antigen-specific IgG-bearing memory B cells and serum titers of antigen-specific IgG. Eur. J. Immunol. 1999. 29: 14061417.
  • 38
    Bauer, T. and Jilg, W., Hepatitis B surface antigen-specific T and B cell memory in individuals who had lost protective antibodies after hepatitis B vaccination. Vaccine 2006. 24: 572577.
  • 39
    Cherry, J. D., Gornbein, J., Heininger, U. and Stehr, K., A search for serologic correlates of immunity to Bordetella pertussis cough illnesses. Vaccine 1998. 16: 19011906.
  • 40
    Lugauer, S., Heininger, U., Cherry, J. D. and Stehr, K., Long-term clinical effectiveness of an acellular pertussis component vaccine and a whole cell pertussis component vaccine. Eur. J. Pediatr. 2002. 161: 142146.