• 1
    Nussenblatt, R. B., Bench to bedside: new approaches to the immunotherapy of uveitic disease. Int. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 21: 273289.
  • 2
    Nussenblatt, R. B., Fortin, E., Schiffman, R., Rizzo, L., Smith, J., Van Veldhuisen, P., Sran, et al., Treatment of noninfectious intermediate and posterior uveitis with the humanized anti-Tac mAb: a phase I/II clinical trial. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999. 96: 74627466.
  • 3
    Cho, J. H., The genetics and immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2008. 8: 458466.
  • 4
    Nakae, S., Saijo, S., Horai, R., Sudo, K., Mori, S. and Iwakura, Y., IL-17 production from activated T cells is required for the spontaneous development of destructive arthritis in mice deficient in IL-1 receptor antagonist. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2003. 100: 59865990.
  • 5
    Langrish, C. L., Chen, Y., Blumenschein, W. M., Mattson, J., Basham, B., Sedgwick, J. D., McClanahan, T. et al., IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation. J. Exp. Med. 2005. 201: 233240.
  • 6
    Chi, W., Zhu, X., Yang, P., Liu, X., Lin, X., Zhou, H., Huang, X. and Kijlstra, A., Upregulated IL-23 and IL-17 in Behcet patients with active uveitis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008. 49: 30583064.
  • 7
    Kim, J., Park, J. A., Lee, E. Y., Lee, Y. J., Song, Y. W. and Lee, E. B., Imbalance of Th17 to Th1 cells in Behcet's disease. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 2010. 28: S16S19.
  • 8
    Jiang, S., Liu, X., Luo, L., Qu, B., Huang, X., Lin, Y., Ye, S. and Liu, Y., Serum levels of Th17-related cytokines in Behcet disease patients after cataract surgery. Mol. Vis. 2011. 17: 14251430.
  • 9
    Chi, W., Yang, P., Li, B., Wu, C., Jin, H., Zhu, X., Chen, al., IL-23 promotes CD4+ T cells to produce IL-17 in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2007. 119: 12181224.
  • 10
    Jiang, S., Liu, X., Luo, L., Qu, B., Huang, X., Xu, L., Lin, Y. et al., Elevated serum IL-23 correlates with intraocular inflammation after cataract surgery in patients with Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2010. 94: 10781082.
  • 11
    Chi, W., Yang, P., Zhu, X., Wang, Y., Chen, L., Huang, X. and Liu, X., Production of interleukin-17 in Behcet's disease is inhibited by cyclosporin A. Mol. Vis. 2010. 16: 880886.
  • 12
    Yang, K., Wen, J., Liu, X., Kijlstra, A., Chen, L., Chi, W., Zhou, H. et al., Inhibitory effect of rapamycin and dexamethasone on production of IL-17 and IFN-gamma in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada patients. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2009. 93: 249253.
  • 13
    Caspi, R. R., Roberge, F. G., Chan, C. C., Wiggert, B., Chader, G. J., Rozenszajn, L. A., Lando, Z. and Nussenblatt, R. B., A new model of autoimmune disease. Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis induced in mice with two different retinal antigens. J. Immunol. 1988. 140: 14901495.
  • 14
    Nussenblatt, R. B., Experimental autoimmune uveitis: mechanisms of disease and clinical therapeutic indications. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1991. 32: 31313141.
  • 15
    Amadi-Obi, A., Yu, C. R., Liu, X., Mahdi, R. M., Clarke, G. L., Nussenblatt, R. B., Gery, I. et al., T(H)17 cells contribute to uveitis and scleritis and are expanded by IL-2 and inhibited by IL-27/STAT1. Nat. Med. 2007. 13: 711718.
  • 16
    Zhang, R., Qian, J., Guo, J., Yuan, Y. F. and Xue, K., Suppression of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis by Anti-IL-17 antibody. Curr. Eye Res. 2009. 34: 297303.
  • 17
    Dong, C., TH17 cells in development: an updated view of their molecular identity and genetic programming. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2008. 8: 337348.
  • 18
    Korn, T., Bettelli, E., Oukka, M. and Kuchroo, V. K., IL-17 and Th17 Cells. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2009. 27: 485517.
  • 19
    Liu, X., Lee, Y. S., Yu, C. R. and Egwuagu, C. E., Loss of STAT3 in CD4+ T cells prevents development of experimental autoimmune diseases. J. Immunol. 2008. 180: 60706076.
  • 20
    Laurence, A., Tato, C. M., Davidson, T. S., Kanno, Y., Chen, Z., Yao, Z., Blank, R. B. et al., Interleukin-2 signaling via STAT5 constrains T helper 17 cell generation. Immunity 2007. 26: 371381.
  • 21
    McGeachy, M. J., Chen, Y., Tato, C. M., Laurence, A., Joyce-Shaikh, B., Blumenschein, W. M., McClanahan, T. K. et al., The interleukin 23 receptor is essential for the terminal differentiation of interleukin 17-producing effector T helper cells in vivo. Nat. Immunol. 2009. 10: 314324.
  • 22
    Yang, X. O., Nurieva, R., Martinez, G. J., Kang, H. S., Chung, Y., Pappu, B. P., Shah, B. et al., Molecular antagonism and plasticity of regulatory and inflammatory T cell programs. Immunity 2008. 29: 4456.
  • 23
    Shi, G., Cox, C. A., Vistica, B. P., Tan, C., Wawrousek, E. F. and Gery, I., Phenotype switching by inflammation-inducing polarized Th17 cells, but not by Th1 cells. J. Immunol. 2008. 181: 72057213.
  • 24
    Rowell, E. and Wilson, C. B., Programming perpetual T helper cell plasticity. Immunity 2009. 30: 79.
  • 25
    Lee, Y. K., Turner, H., Maynard, C. L., Oliver, J. R., Chen, D., Elson, C. O. and Weaver, C. T., Late developmental plasticity in the T helper 17 lineage. Immunity 2009. 30: 92107.
  • 26
    Zhou, L., Chong, M. M. and Littman, D. R., Plasticity of CD4+ T cell lineage differentiation. Immunity 2009. 30: 646655.
  • 27
    Copland, D. A., Wertheim, M. S., Armitage, W. J., Nicholson, L. B., Raveney, B. J. and Dick, A. D., The clinical time-course of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis using topical endoscopic fundal imaging with histologic and cellular infiltrate correlation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008. 49: 54585465.
  • 28
    Sallusto, F., Geginat, J. and Lanzavecchia, A., Central memory and effector memory T cell subsets: function, generation, and maintenance. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2004. 22: 745763.
  • 29
    Oh, H. M., Yu, C. R., Lee, Y., Chan, C. C., Maminishkis, A. and Egwuagu, C. E., Autoreactive memory CD4+ T lymphocytes that mediate chronic uveitis reside in the bone marrow through STAT3-dependent mechanisms. J. Immunol. 2011. 187: 33383346.
  • 30
    Chauhan, S. K., El Annan, J., Ecoiffier, T., Goyal, S., Zhang, Q., Saban, D. R. and Dana, R., Autoimmunity in dry eye is due to resistance of Th17 to Treg suppression. J. Immunol. 2009. 182: 12471252.
  • 31
    Sun, M., Yang, P., Du, L., Zhou, H., Ren, X. and Kijlstra, A., Contribution of CD4+CD25+ T cells to the regression phase of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010. 51: 383389.
  • 32
    Laurence, A. and O'Shea, J. J., T(H)-17 differentiation: of mice and men. Nat. Immunol. 2007. 8: 903905.
  • 33
    Ghoreschi, K., Laurence, A., Yang, X. P., Tato, C. M., McGeachy, M. J., Konkel, J. E., Ramos, H. L. et al., Generation of pathogenic T(H)17 cells in the absence of TGF-beta signalling. Nature 2010. 467: 967971.
  • 34
    Takase, H., Yu, C. R., Liu, X., Fujimoto, C., Gery, I. and Egwuagu, C. E., Induction of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in the retina during experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU): potential neuroprotective role of SOCS proteins. J. Neuroimmunol. 2005. 168: 118127.
  • 35
    Hawkins, E. D., Hommel, M., Turner, M. L., Battye, F. L., Markham, J. F. and Hodgkin, P. D., Measuring lymphocyte proliferation, survival and differentiation using CFSE time-series data. Nat. Protoc. 2007. 2: 20572067.