Dimers of the nonclassical HLA-G class I molecule have recently been shown to be active structures that mediate inhibition of NK-cell cytotoxic activity through interaction with the immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)-2 inhibitory receptor. However, this has only been proven in trophoblasts and HLA-G transfectants. Here, we document for the first time the existence of HLA-G dimers in cancer. Indeed, we identified both surface and soluble HLA-G dimers in tumor cells and malignant ascites respectively. Interestingly, factors from the tumor microenvironment, such as interferons, enhanced the formation of HLA-G dimers and increased the protection of tumors from NK cell-mediated lysis. These data emphasize the impact of HLA-G conformation on its efficiency at inhibiting the antitumor response and thus favoring tumor progression. In view of these results, the effect of the tumor microenvironment on upregulation of HLA-G function deserves particular attention when designing cancer immunotherapy protocols.