The adoptive transfer of OVA-specific Th1 cells into WT mice followed by OVA inhalation induces a significant elevation of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) with neutrophilia but not mucus hypersecretion. Here, we demonstrate that the airway inflammation model, pathogenically characterized as severe asthma, was partly mimicked by i.n. administration of IFN-γ. The administration of IFN-γ instead of Th1 cells caused AHR elevation but not neutrophilia, and remarkably induced neurokinin-2 receptor (NK2R) expression along with neurokinin A (NKA) production in the lung. To evaluate whether NKA/NK2R was involved in airway inflammation, we first investigated the role of NKA/NK2R-signaling in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in vitro. NK2R mRNA expression was significantly augmented in tracheal tube-derived ASMCs of WT mice but not STAT-1−/− mice after stimulation with IFN-γ. In addition, methacholine-mediated Ca2+ influx into the ASMCs was significantly reduced in the presence of NK2R antagonist. Moreover, the NK2R antagonist strongly inhibited IFN-γ-dependent AHR elevation in vivo. Thus, these results demonstrated that IFN-γ directly acts on ASMCs to elevate AHR via the NKA/NK2R-signaling cascade. Our present findings suggested that NK2R-mediated neuro-immuno crosstalk would be a promising target for developing novel drugs in Th1-cell-mediated airway inflammation, including severe asthma.