• 1
    Advani, R. J., Bae, H. R., Bock, J. B., Chao, D. S., Doung, Y. C., Prekeris, R., Yoo, J. al.,Seven novel mammalian SNARE proteins localize to distinct membrane compartments. J. Biol. Chem. 1998. 273: 1031710324.
  • 2
    Prekeris, R., Klumperman, J.andScheller, R. H., Syntaxin 11 is an atypical SNARE abundant in the immune system. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 2000. 79: 771780.
  • 3
    Valdez, A. C., Cabaniols, J. P., Brown, M. J. and Roche, P. A., Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. J. Cell Sci. 1999. 112(Pt 6): 845854.
  • 4
    Arneson, L. N., Brickshawana, A., Segovis, C. M., Schoon, R. A., Dick, C. J. and Leibson, P. J., Cutting edge: syntaxin 11 regulates lymphocyte-mediated secretion and cytotoxicity. J. Immunol. 2007. 179: 33973401.
  • 5
    Bryceson, Y. T., Rudd, E., Zheng, C., Edner, J., Ma, D., Wood, S. M., Bechensteen, A. G. et al., Defective cytotoxic lymphocyte degranulation in syntaxin-11 deficient familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 4 (FHL4) patients. Blood 2007. 110: 19061915.
  • 6
    Zhang, S., Ma, D., Wang, X., Celkan, T., Nordenskjold, M., Henter, J. I., Fadeel, B. et al., Syntaxin-11 is expressed in primary human monocytes/macrophages and acts as a negative regulator of macrophage engulfment of apoptotic cells and IgG-opsonized target cells. Br. J. Haematol 2008. 142: 469479.
  • 7
    Xie, L. X., de la Iglesia-Vicente, J., Fang, Y. X. and Mollinedo, F., Expression and subcellular localization of syntaxin 11 in human neutrophils. Inflamm. Res. 2009. 58: 407412.
  • 8
    Dabrazhynetskaya, A., Ma, J., Guerreiro-Cacais, A. O., Arany, Z., Rudd, E., Henter, J. I., Karre, K. et al., Syntaxin 11 marks a distinct intracellular compartment recruited to the immunological synapse of NK cells to co-localize with cytotoxic granules. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2011. 16: 129141.
  • 9
    Offenhauser, C., Lei, N., Roy, S., Collins, B. M., Stow, J. L. and Murray, R. Z., Syntaxin 11 binds Vti1b and regulates late endosome to lysosome fusion in macrophages. Traffic 2011. 12: 762773.
  • 10
    Feldmann, J., Callebaut, I., Raposo, G., Certain, S., Bacq, D., Dumont, C., Lambert, N. et al., Munc13–4 is essential for cytolytic granules fusion and is mutated in a form of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL3). Cell 2003. 115: 461473.
  • 11
    Menasche, G., Pastural, E., Feldmann, J., Certain, S., Ersoy, F., Dupuis, S., Wulffraat, N. et al., Mutations in RAB27A cause Griscelli syndrome associated with haemophagocytic syndrome. Nat. Genet. 2000. 25: 173176.
  • 12
    Stepp, S. E., Dufourcq-Lagelouse, R., Le Deist, F., Bhawan, S., Certain, S., Mathew, P. A., Henter, J. I. et al., Perforin gene defects in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Science 1999. 286: 19571959.
  • 13
    zur Stadt, U., Schmidt, S., Kasper, B., Beutel, K., Diler, A. S., Henter, J. I., Kabisch, H. et al., Linkage of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) type-4 to chromosome 6q24 and identification of mutations in syntaxin 11. Hum. Mol. Genet 2005. 14: 827834.
  • 14
    Janka, G. E., Hemophagocytic syndromes. Blood Rev. 2007. 21: 245253.
  • 15
    Cote, M., Menager, M. M., Burgess, A., Mahlaoui, N., Picard, C., Schaffner, C., Al-Manjomi, F. et al., Munc18–2 deficiency causes familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 5 and impairs cytotoxic granule exocytosis in patient NK cells. J. Clin. Invest. 2009. 119: 37653773.
  • 16
    zur Stadt, U., Rohr, J., Seifert, W., Koch, F., Grieve, S., Pagel, J., Strauss, J. et al., Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 5 (FHL-5) is caused by mutations in Munc18–2 and impaired binding to syntaxin 11. Am. J. Hum. Genet 2009. 85: 482492.
  • 17
    Hata, Y. and Sudhof, T. C., A novel ubiquitous form of Munc-18 interacts with multiple syntaxins. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system to study interactions between proteins involved in membrane traffic. J. Biol. Chem. 1995. 270: 1302213028.
  • 18
    Dressel, R., Elsner, L., Novota, P., Kanwar, N. and Fischer von Mollard, G., The exocytosis of lytic granules is impaired in Vti1b- or Vamp8-deficient CTL leading to a reduced cytotoxic activity following antigen-specific activation. J. Immunol. 2010. 185: 10051014.
  • 19
    Stow, J. L., Manderson, A. P. and Murray, R. Z., SNAREing immunity: the role of SNAREs in the immune system. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2006. 6: 919929.
  • 20
    Collins, R. F., Schreiber, A. D., Grinstein, S. and Trimble, W. S., Syntaxins 13 and 7 function at distinct steps during phagocytosis. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 32503256.
  • 21
    Hatsuzawa, K., Tamura, T., Hashimoto, H., Yokoya, S., Miura, M., Nagaya, H. and Wada, I., Involvement of syntaxin 18, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized SNARE protein, in ER-mediated phagocytosis. Mol. Biol. Cell 2006. 17: 39643977.
  • 22
    Murray, R. Z., Wylie, F. G., Khromykh, T., Hume, D. A. and Stow, J. L., Syntaxin 6 and Vti1b form a novel SNARE complex, which is up-regulated in activated macrophages to facilitate exocytosis of tumor necrosis Factor-alpha. J. Biol. Chem. 2005. 280: 1047810483.
  • 23
    Pagan, J. K., Wylie, F. G., Joseph, S., Widberg, C., Bryant, N. J., James, D. E.and Stow, J. L., The t-SNARE syntaxin 4 is regulated during macrophage activation to function in membrane traffic and cytokine secretion. Curr. Biol. 2003. 13: 156160.
  • 24
    Cai, D. T., Ho, Y. H., Chiow, K. H., Wee, S. H., Han, Y., Peh, M. T. and Wong, S. H., Aspirin regulates SNARE protein expression and phagocytosis in dendritic cells. Mol. Membr. Biol. 2011. 28: 90102.
  • 25
    Ho, Y. H., Cai, D. T., Wang, C. C., Huang, D. and Wong, S. H., Vesicle-associated membrane protein-8/endobrevin negatively regulates phagocytosis of bacteria in dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 2008. 180: 31483157.
  • 26
    Paumet, F., Le Mao, J., Martin, S., Galli, T., David, B., Blank, U. and Roa, M., Soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in RBL-2H3 mast cells: functional role of syntaxin 4 in exocytosis and identification of a vesicle-associated membrane protein 8-containing secretory compartment. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 58505857.
  • 27
    Vaidyanathan, V. V., Puri, N. and Roche, P. A., The last exon of SNAP-23 regulates granule exocytosis from mast cells. J. Biol. Chem. 2001. 276: 2510125106.
  • 28
    Lippert, U., Ferrari, D. M. and Jahn, R., Endobrevin/VAMP8 mediates exocytotic release of hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukaemia cells. FEBS Lett. 2007. 581: 34793484.
  • 29
    Tiwari, N., Wang, C. C., Brochetta, C., Ke, G., Vita, F., Qi, Z., Rivera, J. et al., VAMP-8 segregates mast cell-preformed mediator exocytosis from cytokine trafficking pathways. Blood 2008. 111: 36653674.
  • 30
    Puri, N. and Roche, P. A., Mast cells possess distinct secretory granule subsets whose exocytosis is regulated by different SNARE isoforms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008. 105: 25802585.
  • 31
    Huse, M., Lillemeier, B. F., Kuhns, M. S., Chen, D. S. and Davis, M. M., T cells use two directionally distinct pathways for cytokine secretion. Nat. Immunol. 2006. 7: 247255.
  • 32
    Murray, R. Z., Kay, J. G., Sangermani, D. G. and Stow, J. L., A role for the phagosome in cytokine secretion. Science 2005. 310: 14921495.
  • 33
    Lutz, M. B., Kukutsch, N., Ogilvie, A. L., Rossner, S., Koch, F., Romani, N. and Schuler, G., An advanced culture method for generating large quantities of highly pure dendritic cells from mouse bone marrow. J. Immunol. Methods 1999. 223: 7792.
  • 34
    Orinska, Z., Maurer, M., Mirghomizadeh, F., Bulanova, E., Metz, M., Nashkevich, N., Schiemann, F. et al., IL-15 constrains mast cell-dependent antibacterial defenses by suppressing chymase activities. Nat. Med. 2007. 13: 927934.
  • 35
    Pervushina, O., Scheuerer, B., Reiling, N., Behnke, L., Schroder, J. M., Kasper, B., Brandt, E. et al., Platelet factor 4/CXCL4 induces phagocytosis and the generation of reactive oxygen metabolites in mononuclear phagocytes independently of Gi protein activation or intracellular calcium transients. J. Immunol. 2004. 173: 20602067.