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Fig. S1. Individual level heterogeneity of the proportion of the cytokine secreting subsets to core proteins of pH1N1. Proportion of the total number of cytokine-secreting cells in ex vivo PBMCs for (A, E) PB1, (B, F) M1, (C, G) NP and (D, H) the summed response to PB1, M1 and NP antigens from the IFN-ã-only, IL-2-only and IFN- ã/IL-2 dual secreting subsets in pH1N1 sero-negative individuals was determined by Fluorescence-Immunospot. Individuals represented by symbols (A-D) or bars (E-H) and horizontal lines represent median responses. Individuals are not shown in the same order in E-H (n = 33).

Fig. S2. Gating strategy for Figure 4. Cells were gated based on side scatter and forward scatter to exclude debris followed by gating to exclude doublets, dead cells and non-lymphocyte cell populations. Cells were then gated for CD3 and CD3+ cells were further identified as CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+. For each of these populations, cells were divided into different effector and memory populations using CCR7 and CD45RA surface markers. For each of CCR7+CD45RA-, CCR7+CD45RA+, CD45RA+CCR7-, cells were gated for secretion of IFN-ã and IL-2.

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