• 1
    WHO, Global tuberculosis control report, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.
  • 2
    Flynn, J. L. and Chan, J., Tuberculosis: latency and reactivation. Infect. Immun. 2001. 69: 41954201.
  • 3
    Eum, S. Y., Kong, J. H., Hong, M. S., Lee, Y. J., Kim, J. H., Hwang, S. H., Cho, S. N. et al., Neutrophils are the predominant infected phagocytic cells in the airways of patients with active pulmonary TB. Chest 2010. 137: 122128.
  • 4
    Kaufmann, S. H., Cole, S. T., Mizrahi, V., Rubin, E. and Nathan, C., Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the host response. J. Exp. Med. 2005. 201: 16931697.
  • 5
    Ulrichs, T. and Kaufmann, S. H., New insights into the function of granulomas in human tuberculosis. J. Pathol. 2006. 208: 261269.
  • 6
    von Pirquet, C., Die Allergieprobe zur Diagnose der Tuberkulose im Kindesalter. Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 1907. 57: 13701374.
  • 7
    Comstock, G. W., Livesay, V. T. and Woolpert, S. F., The prognosis of a positive tuberculin reaction in childhood and adolescence. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1974. 99: 131138.
  • 8
    Rangaka, M. X., Wilkinson, K. A., Glynn, J. R., Ling, D., Menzies, D., Mwansa-Kambafwile, J., Fielding, K. et al., Predictive value of interferon-gamma release assays for incident active tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2012. 12: 4555.
  • 9
    Mendel, F., Über intrakutane Tuberkulinanwendung zu diagnostischen Zwecken (Intrakutanreaktion). Beitr. Klin. Tuberk. 1909. 13: 139144.
  • 10
    Mantoux, C., L'intradermo-reaction de la tuberculine et son interpretation clinique. Presse. Med. 1910. 2: 1013.
  • 11
    Mack, U., Migliori, G. B., Sester, M., Rieder, H. L., Ehlers, S., Goletti, D., Bossink, A. et al., LTBI: latent tuberculosis infection or lasting immune responses to M. tuberculosis? A TBNET consensus statement. Eur. Respir. J. 2009. 33: 956973.
  • 12
    Dheda, K., van Zyl Smit, R., Badri, M. and Pai, M., T-cell interferon-gamma release assays for the rapid immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis: clinical utility in high-burden vs. low-burden settings. Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 2009. 15: 188200.
  • 13
    Diel, R., Goletti, D., Ferrara, G., Bothamley, G., Cirillo, D., Kampmann, B., Lange, C. et al., Interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. Respir. J. 2011. 37: 8899.
  • 14
    Sester, M., Sotgiu, G., Lange, C., Giehl, C., Girardi, E., Migliori, G. B., Bossink, A. et al., Interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. Respir. J. 2011. 37: 100111.
  • 15
    Jafari, C. and Lange, C., Suttons's law: local immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis. Infection 2008. 36: 510514.
  • 16
    Jafari, C., Thijsen, S., Sotgiu, G., Goletti, D., Benitez, J. A., Losi, M., Eberhardt, R. et al., Bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot for a rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis: a Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2009. 180: 666673.
  • 17
    Losi, M., Bossink, A., Codecasa, L., Jafari, C., Ernst, M., Thijsen, S., Cirillo, D. et al., Use of a T-cell interferon-gamma release assay for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. Eur. Respir. J. 2007. 30: 11731179.
  • 18
    Kobashi, Y., Shimizu, H., Mouri, K., Obase, Y., Miyashita, N. and Oka, M., Rapid diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis by a T-cell interferon-gamma release assay. Scand J. Infect. Dis. 2009. 41: 232236.
  • 19
    Thomas, M. M., Hinks, T. S., Raghuraman, S., Ramalingam, N., Ernst, M., Nau, R., Lange, C. et al., Rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis by enumeration of cerebrospinal fluid antigen-specific T-cells. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2008. 12: 651657.
  • 20
    Kim, S. H., Cho, O. H., Park, S. J., Lee, E. M., Kim, M. N., Lee, S. O., Choi, S. H. et al., Rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by T cell-based assays on peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cells. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2010. 50: 13491358.
  • 21
    Lorenz, R., Wurl, P., Haerter, G., Cammerer, G., Barth, T., Hausladen, S., Stenger, S. et al., Interferon-gamma release assay in the ascites: Early hint for diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Infection 2010. 38: 6972.
  • 22
    Wilkinson, K. A., Wilkinson, R. J., Pathan, A., Ewer, K., Prakash, M., Klenerman, P., Maskell, N. et al., Ex vivo characterization of early secretory antigenic target 6-specific T cells at sites of active disease in pleural tuberculosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2005. 40: 184187.
  • 23
    Sester, U., Fousse, M., Dirks, J., Mack, U., Prasse, A., Singh, M., Lalvani, A. et al., Whole-blood flow-cytometric analysis of antigen-specific CD4 T-cell cytokine profiles distinguishes active tuberculosis from non-active states. PLoS One 2011. 6: e17813.
  • 24
    Harari, A., Rozot, V., Enders, F. B., Perreau, M., Stalder, J. M., Nicod, L. P., Cavassini, M. et al., Dominant TNF-alpha+ Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cell responses discriminate between latent infection and active disease. Nat. Med. 2011. 17: 372376.
  • 25
    Streitz, M., Tesfa, L., Yildirim, V., Yahyazadeh, A., Ulrichs, T., Lenkei, R., Quassem, A. et al., Loss of receptor on tuberculin-reactive T-cells marks active pulmonary tuberculosis. PLoS ONE 2007. 2: e735.
  • 26
    Sester, M., Sester, U., Clauer, P., Heine, G., Mack, U., Moll, T., Sybrecht, G. W. et al., Tuberculin skin testing underestimates a high prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2004. 65: 18261834.
  • 27
    Adekambi, T., Ibegbu, C. C., Kalokhe, A. S., Yu, T., Ray, S. M. and Rengarajan, J., Distinct effector memory CD4+ T cell signatures in latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, BCG vaccination and clinically resolved tuberculosis. PLoS One 2012. 7: e36046.
  • 28
    Nemeth, J., Rumetshofer, R., Winkler, H. M., Burghuber, O. C., Muller, C. and Winkler, S., Active tuberculosis is characterized by an antigen-specific and strictly localized expansion of effector T cells at the site of infection. Eur. J. Immunol. 2012. 42: 28442850.
  • 29
    Boehme, C. C., Nabeta, P., Hillemann, D., Nicol, M. P., Shenai, S., Krapp, F., Allen, J. et al., Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. N. Engl. J. Med. 2010. 363: 10051015.
  • 30
    Hillemann, D., Rusch-Gerdes, S., Boehme, C. and Richter, E., Rapid molecular detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis by the automated GeneXpert MTB/RIF system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2011. 49: 12021205.