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Calixthioamides as Ionophores for Transition- and Heavy-Metal Cations

Authors

  • Joanna Kulesza,

    1. Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology Narutowicza 11/12 Street, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
    2. Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, IPHC-DSA, UDS, CNRS, ECPM 25, rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg Cedex 2, France
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  • Maria Bocheńska

    1. Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology Narutowicza 11/12 Street, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
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Abstract

There is an increasing interest in applying p-tert-butylcalix[4]arenes as sensing materials in ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Considerable efforts were made to design calixarenes that are selective for some heavy- or transition-metal ions to be used in ISEs for controlling and monitoring the level of such pollutants in the environment. It has been reported that introduction of softer sulfur atoms instead of oxygen atoms in calix[4]arene substituents promotes their complexing ability towards transition- and heavy-metal ions, which are toxic for human beings and pollute the environment. In this microreview, we present sulfur-containing calix[4]arenes acting as sensing materials for metal cations such as Ag+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ but also as efficient extractants for Pd2+, Au3+ and Hg2+.

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