• Lead;
  • Metal ion detection;
  • Heavy metal contamination;
  • Fluores­cence;
  • Sensors


In the past, Pb2+ was used in many industries, including gasoline, piping, toys, paints, and more. The use of lead has led to a natural increase in lead concentrations in the environment, especially in air and water. According to the U.S. Center for Disease Control “no level of lead in blood is considered safe.” Exposure to very low levels of lead can cause several health complications including developmental and neurological disorders. Over the past several years an emphasis has been placed on developing systems that can detect lead at very low concentrations. A great deal of work has been accomplished in the development of Pb2+ sensors that can not only detect but also quantify, and in some cases in the presence of other metal ions, the amount present. Herein, we describe current regulations, modes of exposure, and recent developments in sensing techniques.