The 1,3-Diamino-1,2,3-triazolium Cation: A Highly Energetic Moiety



The 1,3-diamino-1,2,3-triazolium cation has been prepared by the amination of 1-amino-1,2,3-triazole with O-tosylhydroxylamine. The cation shows a very positive enthalpy of formation and is therefore highly suitable as the fuel component in new energetic materials. The cation was then paired with the energetic anions nitrate, nitrotetrazolate-2-oxide, 5,5′-bis(1-oxidotetrazolate), 5,5′-azobis(1-oxidotetrazolate), and nitriminotetrazolate and characterized. All the prepared compounds are high-performance energetic materials, and when performances were compared with the corresponding triaminoguanidinium salt, those of 1,3-diamino-1,2,3-triazolium were generally superior, as calculated by the EXPLO5 computer code. The heats of formation were calculated at the CBS-4M level of theory. The impact, friction, and electrical spark sensitivities of the 1,3-diamino-1,2,3-triazolium salts were measured and found to be easily initiated energetic materials.