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Keywords:

  • Nanostructures;
  • Batteries;
  • ­Organic–inorganic hybrid composites;
  • ­Solid-state reactions;
  • Cyclic voltammetry;
  • Charge transfer

Abstract

ZnMn2O4–ZnO–C nanohybrids have been synthesized by means of a simple carbonthermal reduction reaction between ZnMnO3 and acetylene black. ZnMn2O4–C nanohybrids are obtained by further washing with NaOH solution. The reversible discharge capacity of the ZnMn2O4–ZnO–C nanohybrids can reach 620 mA h g–1 at a current density of 100 mA g–1 and 520 mA h g–1 at 800 mA g–1 after 100 cycles. More importantly, ZnMn2O4–C shows better conductivity along with better rate performance after the removal of ZnO. The as-prepared ZnMn2O4–C nanohybrids show a high specific capacity of approximately 750 mA h g–1 at a current density of 100 mA g–1 after 100 cycles and excellent rate performance. The reaction involved in the discharge/charge processes are discussed on the basis of ex situ high-resolution transmission of the electrode materials. The conclusions will be of benefit in the design and exploration of future binary transition-metal oxide anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.