European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 2012 Issue 12

Special Issue: Metal-Based MRI Probes (Cluster Issue)

April 2012

Volume 2012, Issue 12

Pages 1872–2166

Issue edited by: Mauro Botta

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorials
    4. Back Cover
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. News
    7. Microreviews
    8. Short Communications
    9. Full Papers
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  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorials
    4. Back Cover
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. News
    7. Microreviews
    8. Short Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Metal-Based MRI Probes (page 1872)

      Karen Hindson

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201290033

    2. Metal-Based MRI Probes (pages 1873–1874)

      Mauro Botta

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201290034

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorials
    4. Back Cover
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. News
    7. Microreviews
    8. Short Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
  4. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorials
    4. Back Cover
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. News
    7. Microreviews
    8. Short Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Graphical Abstract: Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 12/2012 (pages 1876–1882)

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201290036

  5. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorials
    4. Back Cover
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. News
    7. Microreviews
    8. Short Communications
    9. Full Papers
  6. Microreviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorials
    4. Back Cover
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. News
    7. Microreviews
    8. Short Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Gd-DTPA Contrast Agents

      Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterisation of Gd-DTPA Derivatives as Contrast Agents for MRI (pages 1889–1915)

      Sophie Laurent, Céline Henoumont, Luce Vander Elst and Robert N. Muller

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101226

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Derivatives of Gd-DTPA (gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) are compared with regard to their synthesis and to the most important parameters that regulate their efficacy.

    2. Structure–Relaxivity Relationships

      Structure–Relaxivity Relationships among Targeted MR Contrast Agents (pages 1916–1923)

      Peter Caravan and Zhaoda Zhang

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101364

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effect of changing a single donor atom in a gadolinium(III) complex targeting human serum albumin can be seen in the graphic. The single donor group modification alters inner-sphere water exchange by three orders of magnitude and changes relaxivity by a factor of five. Water exchange can be rationally tuned to optimize relaxivity.

    3. MRI Contrast Agents

      Blood-Pool and Targeting MRI Contrast Agents: From Gd-Chelates to Gd-Nanoparticles (pages 1924–1933)

      Gang Ho Lee, Yongmin Chang and Tae-Jeong Kim

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101137

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      A new family of BPCAs and tumor-targeting MRI CAs are provided and characterized by a neutral Gd-chelate, [Gd(H2O)(L)], where chelates (L) are DTPA-conjugates of ferrocenyldiamines (1), diaminobiphenyls (2), and DOTA-conjugates of tranexamates (3) and liver-targeting CAs by gold nanoparticles coated with GdL (Au@GdL). Tumor-targeting is achieved by GdL-RGD conjugation and GdO nanoparticles.

    4. Cellular Labelling

      MRI Paramagnetic Probes for Cellular Labeling (pages 1934–1944)

      Eliana Gianolio, Rachele Stefania, Enza Di Gregorio and Silvio Aime

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101399

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The main procedures which allow an efficient cellular labelling with paramagnetic metal complexes for MRI detection are discussed. Systems which use GdIII and MnII-based relaxation enhancers as labeling probes have been considered, as well as the emerging class of paraCEST agents which allows the visualization of more cell types in the same MR image.

    5. MRI Nanoprobes

      Relaxivity Enhancement in Macromolecular and Nanosized GdIII-Based MRI Contrast Agents (pages 1945–1960)

      Mauro Botta and Lorenzo Tei

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101305

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The development of more effective nanosystems for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications, ranging from protein-based to silica nanoparticles, has scarcely been combined with an attempt at enhancing the relaxivity of the individual Gd chelate. Optimization of the physicochemical properties of the chelate and its conjugation mode enables large increases in relaxivity.

    6. Ln-Loaded Porous Materials

      Lanthanide Loaded Zeolites, Clays, and Mesoporous Silica Materials as MRI Probes (pages 1961–1974)

      Joop A. Peters and Kristina Djanashvili

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101195

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Various strategies for the loading of porous, nanosized materials with lanthanides for use as positive or negative contrast agents for MRI have been described. The diverse structural features of these materials with large pore volumes and various domains that can be functionalized independently enable multimodal and theranostic applications.

    7. Mn(II) Complexes as Contrast Agents

      Manganese(II) Complexes as Potential Contrast Agents for MRI (pages 1975–1986)

      Bohuslav Drahoš, Ivan Lukeš and Éva Tóth

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101336

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mn2+ chelates are interesting candidates for application as MRI contrast agents. In the design of novel ligands for Mn2+ complexation, one has to find a balance between good thermodynamic stability and high efficiency (relaxivity) of the complex.

    8. Manganese-Enhanced MRI

      Manganese-Enhanced MRI Contrast Agents: From Small Chelates to Nanosized Hybrids (pages 1987–2005)

      Marie Kueny-Stotz, Antonio Garofalo and Delphine Felder-Flesch

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101163

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      The structural evolution of manganese-containing MRI contrast agents, from macromolecules or natural extracts to smart nanosystems, is presented.

    9. MRI Contrast Agents

      The Development of Iron(II) Complexes as ParaCEST MRI Contrast Agents (pages 2006–2014)

      Sarina J. Dorazio and Janet R. Morrow

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101169

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      Paramagnetic metal ions are important for the development of MRI contrast agents that function through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST or paraCEST). Recent work shows that FeII paraCEST MRI contrast agents are promising new candidates to add to the current repertoire of lanthanide(III) complex contrast agents.

    10. Magnetic Resonance Probes

      Lanthanide Complexes as Paramagnetic Probes for 19F Magnetic Resonance (pages 2015–2022)

      Peter Harvey, Ilya Kuprov and David Parker

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201100894

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sensitivity in 19F magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging is enhanced by placing a paramagnetic lanthanide within 7 Å of the spin label. Faster relaxation allows more rapid data acquisition for systems generating one main resonance, and the proximate lanthanide ion amplifies the chemical shift non-equivalence in responsive probes.

    11. MRI Probes

      The Solution Structure and Dynamics of MRI Probes Based on Lanthanide(III) DOTA as Investigated by DFT and NMR Spectroscopy (pages 2023–2033)

      Carlos Platas-Iglesias

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101164

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We present a short overview of the potential of DFT and paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy to explore the solution structure and dynamics of LnIII complexes with cyclen-based ligands, providing information at the molecular level on the factors that affect the relative populations of square-antiprismatic (SAP) and twisted-square-antiprismatic (TSAP) isomers, as well as their interconversion mechanisms.

  7. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorials
    4. Back Cover
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. News
    7. Microreviews
    8. Short Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. pH-Sensitive Contrast Agents

      Gd-Aminoethyl-DO3A Complexes: A Novel Class of pH-Sensitive MRI Contrast Agents (pages 2035–2039)

      Giovanni B. Giovenzana, Roberto Negri, Gabriele A. Rolla and Lorenzo Tei

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101296

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gd3+ complexes of aminoethyl-substituted DO3A show pH-sensitive behaviour with a relaxivity jump close to physiologically relevant pH values. The response to pH of this novel platform may be fine tuned by N-substitution.

    2. ParaCEST Agents

      Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Is Unaffected by Modest Changes in Pressure (pages 2040–2043)

      Benjamin C. Webber, Christiane E. Carney and Mark Woods

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101291

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Interstitial pressure is an important physiological parameter that is often overlooked in molecular imaging. CEST is a method of generating MRI contrast that is acutely sensitive to changes in exchange and therefore possibly pressure. Variable pressure CEST experiments show that changes in interstitial pressure are unlikely to confound CEST MRI measurements.

    3. Nanocrystal Contrast Agents

      Single-Phase NaDyF4:Tb3+ Nanocrystals as Multifunctional Contrast Agents in High-Field Magnetic Resonance and Optical Imaging (pages 2044–2048)

      Yan Zhang, Vimalan Vijayaragavan, Gautom K. Das, Kishore K. Bhakoo and Timothy Thatt Yang Tan

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101203

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dual-mode NaDyF4:Tb3+ nanocrystals were synthesized by the thermal decomposition method. The nanocrystals showedgreen fluorescence and good negative T2 contrast in 7-T MR phantom and animal imaging.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorials
    4. Back Cover
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. News
    7. Microreviews
    8. Short Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. MRI Contrast Agents

      New Bisaqua Picolinate-Based Gadolinium Complexes as MRI Contrast Agents with Substantial High-Field Relaxivities (pages 2049–2061)

      Aline M. Nonat, Christelle Gateau, Pascal H. Fries, Lothar Helm and Marinella Mazzanti

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101162

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two tripodal ligands and their bisaqua GdIII complexes have been synthesised and characterised by NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy and potentiometry. Both complexes show sizeable relaxivities at highfield. The formation of ternary complexes with oxyanions and bovine serum albumin has been studied, and a twofold increasein relaxivity has been measured for[Gd(dpaba)(H2O)2] in bovine serum.

    2. Lanthanide Complexes

      Lanthanide Complexes Formed with the Tri- and Tetraacetate Derivatives of Bis(aminomethyl)phosphinic Acid: Equilibrium, Kinetic and NMR Spectroscopic Studies (pages 2062–2073)

      Gyula Tircsó, Ferenc K. Kálmán, Róbert Pál, István Bányai, Tamás R. Varga, Róbert Király, István Lázár, Laurent Québatte, André E. Merbach, Éva Tóth and Ernő Brücher

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101299

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The stability constants, relaxivities and rates of the metal exchange reactions that characterize the kinetic inertness of LnIII complexes formed with tri- and tetraacetate derivatives of bis(aminomethyl)phosphinic acid (TCAP and BIMP) are reportedherein. The water exchange rate of[Gd(BIMP)]2– was also determined.

    3. MRI-Relevant Complexes

      Influence of gem-Dimethyl Substitution on the Stability, Kinetics and Relaxometric Properties of PDTA Complexes (pages 2074–2086)

      Attila Forgács, Giovanni B. Giovenzana, Mauro Botta, Ernő Brücher, Imre Tóth and Zsolt Baranyai

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101294

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      The introduction of a gem-dimethyl group on the backbone of the ligand leads to a significant variation in the properties of the corresponding complexes, which originate from a different conformational behaviour.

    4. Lanthanide Chelate Adducts

      Supramolecular Adducts of Negatively Charged Lanthanide(III) DOTP Chelates and Cyclodextrins Functionalized with Ammonium Groups: Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies (pages 2087–2098)

      Giovannia A. Pereira, Joop A. Peters, Enzo Terreno, Daniela Delli Castelli, Silvio Aime, Sophie Laurent, Luce Vander Elst, Robert N. Muller and Carlos F. G. C. Geraldes

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101201

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The negatively charged Ln–DOTP chelate forms relatively strong 1:1 supramolecular adducts with β- and γ-cyclodextrins bearing ammonium groups at the upper rim. The strength of the host–guest interaction depends on the pH. The geometry of the adducts, obtained from paramagnetic shift and relaxation effects, shows that the host is outside the guest cavity.

    5. Bacterial Cell Labeling

      Synthesis, Characterization, and in vitro Testing of a Bacteria-Targeted MR Contrast Agent (pages 2099–2107)

      Lauren M. Matosziuk, Allison S. Harney, Keith W. MacRenaris and Thomas J. Meade

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101362

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A bacteria-targeted MR contrast agent consisting of two Zn-dipicolylamine (Zn-dpa) groups conjugated to a Gd(III) chelate has been synthesized and characterized. This contrast agent significantly reduces the T1 of labeled versus unlabeled bacteria, resulting in enhanced MR image contrast, demonstrating its potential for visualizing bacterial infections in vivo.

    6. Dendrimer-Conjugated MRI Probes

      Conjugation to Biocompatible Dendrimers Increases Lanthanide T2 Relaxivity of Hydroxypyridinone Complexes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (pages 2108–2114)

      Piper J. Klemm, William C. Floyd III, Christopher M. Andolina, Jean M. J. Fréchet and Kenneth N. Raymond

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101167

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The development of high relaxivity andbiofunctional MRI probes is essential to increasing clinical diagnostic ability. T2 MRI probes using lanthanides have the potential to increase relaxivity, biocompatibility, and offer the prospective to increase imaging modality functions.

    7. Micelles for MRI Detection of Collagen

      Molecular MR Imaging of Collagen in Mouse Atherosclerosis by Using Paramagnetic CNA35 Micelles (pages 2115–2125)

      Glenda S. van Bochove, Honorius M. H. F. Sanders, Mariska de Smet, Henk M. Keizer, Willem J. M. Mulder, Rob Krams, Gustav J. Strijkers and Klaas Nicolay

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201200010

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Lipid-based micelles, containing Gd–chelate-conjugated lipid for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection and covalently coupled with the CNA35 protein, were prepared, characterized, and successfully tested for their suitability to enable visualization of collagen in a mouse model of atherosclerosis.

    8. Amphiphilic PARACEST Agents

      Amphiphilic EuDOTA-Tetraamide Complexes Form Micelles with Enhanced CEST Sensitivity (pages 2126–2134)

      Osasere M. Evbuomwan, Garry Kiefer and A. Dean Sherry

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101369

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Four new EuDOTA-tetraamides with variable alkyl chains lengths were synthesized and their CEST properties were extensively studied. Three of these complexes werefound to spontaneously form micelles due to their long alkyl chains which resulted in a dramatic increase in their CEST sensitivities.

    9. MRI Contrast Agents

      Physical Properties of Eu2+-Containing Cryptates as Contrast Agents for Ultrahigh-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (pages 2135–2140)

      Joel Garcia, Akhila N. W. Kuda-Wedagedara and Matthew J. Allen

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101166

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Kinetic measurements showed that Eu2+-containing cryptates can be stable in the presence of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ depending on the ligand structure. Relaxometric studies demonstrated that the efficiency of these cryptates is dependent on temperature but not on pH.

    10. Magnetoluminescent Agents

      Magnetoluminescent Agents for Dual MRI and Time-Gated Fluorescence Imaging (pages 2141–2147)

      Eric D. Smolensky, Yue Zhou and Valérie C. Pierre

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201200045

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4@Tb-DOTAm-(acetylene)3 and Fe3O4@Tb-DOTAm-(Phen)3, two magnetoluminescent agents for dual imaging by MRI and confocal imaging are presented. The nanoparticles are characterized by high transverse and longitudinal relaxivities and long luminescence lifetimes ideal for time-gated spectroscopy.

    11. Manganese Oxide Nanocrystals

      Synthesis of Uniformly Sized Manganese Oxide Nanocrystals with Various Sizes and Shapes and Characterization of Their T1 Magnetic Resonance Relaxivity (pages 2148–2155)

      Kwangjin An, Mihyun Park, Jung Ho Yu, Hyon Bin Na, Nohyun Lee, Jongnam Park, Seung Hong Choi, In Chan Song, Woo Kyung Moon and Taeghwan Hyeon

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101193

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Manganese oxide nanocrystals with various sizes and shapes were synthesized by thermal decomposition of a Mn–oleate complex. The effect of the size and shape of the phospholipid-capped nanocrystalson their applicability as T1 contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was examined. As their size decreased, their specific relaxivities increased, which generated brighter MR images.

    12. Electronic Spin Relaxation

      Computing Electronic Spin Relaxation for Gd3+-Based Contrast Agents – Practical Implementation (pages 2156–2166)

      Pascal H. Fries

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201101430

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Simulated time correlation functions of the fluctuating intramolecular local dipolar field created by Gd3+ in a Gddtpa-like complex giving rise to inner sphere relaxivity at 0 and 1.25 T.

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