Analytical platforms to assess the authenticity of cocoa butter
Article first published online: 16 JAN 2003
© 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology
Volume 105, Issue 1, pages 32–42, January 2003
How to Cite
Ulberth, F. and Buchgraber, M. (2003), Analytical platforms to assess the authenticity of cocoa butter. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 105: 32–42. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.200390003
- Issue published online: 16 JAN 2003
- Article first published online: 16 JAN 2003
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 NOV 2002
- Manuscript Received: 15 OCT 2002
- cocoa butter;
- cocoa butter equivalents;
This paper reviews strategies to detect and analyse cocoa butter equivalents added to genuine cocoa butter or to chocolate products. The legal background of the issue is that current European legislation allows the addition of vegetable fats other than cocoa butter to chocolate up to a level of 5% of the product weight, provided that the addition is correctly indicated on the label. However, the Directive fails to specify a method of analysis to enforce compliance.
The principal themes highlight compositional data (triglyceride and fatty acid composition, components of the unsaponifiable matter) of cocoa butter from different origins and suitable raw materials used for the formulation of cocoa butter equivalents, and explains how analytical techniques (gas-liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, pyrolysis mass spectrometry) make use of subtle differences between the two commodities to detect commingling.