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Keywords:

  • Edible oils;
  • Glycidol;
  • Glycidyl ester;
  • 3-MCPD ester;
  • Palm oil

Abstract

Discrepancies in the analysis of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters can be explained by the hypothesis that in some refined oils significant amounts of fatty acid esters of glycidol (glycidyl esters) are present in addition to 3-MCPD esters. Glycidyl esters were separated from triacylglycerols by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Six samples of palm oil and palm oil-based fats were analyzed by GPC and GC-MS. In chromatograms of all samples, significant peaks, retention time and mass spectra in conformity with self-synthesized glycidyl palmitate and glycidyl oleate were detectable. Quantification of individual glycidyl esters was not possible because of a lack of pure standards. Concentration of ester-bound glycidol in different samples of fats and oils was estimated using an indirect difference method. Glycidyl esters could be detected only in refined, but not in crude or native, fats and oils. The highest concentrations were detected in palm oil and palm oil-based fats. In a palm oil sample, glycidyl ester concentration varied according to different deodorization parameters, temperature, and time, while 3-MCPD ester concentration was relatively constant, indicating that mitigation of glycidyl esters possibly may be achieved by optimizing refining parameters.