Fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD: Overview of occurrence and exposure estimates



Many studies and surveys concerning the ocurrence and exposure of free 3-MCPD have been performed in the last 30 years. Although a huge number of food samples, especially fats and oils, were analysed in the last 3 years, no systematic study about ester-bound 3-MCPD and the resulting exposure was performed up to now. In this paper published data of 3-MCPD esters in different foods are reviewed, with a focus on fats and oils and infant formula. Concerning fats and oils, only in refined products significant concentrations of 3-MCPD esters in a range from 0.25–15 mg/kg were present, with the highest levels found in palm oil. In infant formula, levels of ester-linked 3-MCPD were nearly unchanged in three surveys from April 2009 to May 2010, while levels of ester-linked glycidol decreased dramatically in this period. Based on analytical data of more than 200 refined fats and oils, an average daily intake of 1.5 µg 3-MCPD/kg bw/day, respectively, 0.9 µg glycidol/kg bw/day was calculated to result from consumer exposure to ester-bound 3-MCPD and glycidol.