• Deodorizer distillate;
  • Response surface methodology;
  • Squalene;
  • Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction;
  • Supercritical methanol esterification


In this study, an integrated strategy using supercritical fluids for extraction of squalene from olive oil deodorizer distillate (OODD), one of the most important by-products of the olive oil refining process is presented. First, OODD was esterified in supercritical methanol, and then squalene was extracted from the sample consisting of 66% methyl ester using supercritical CO2. The extraction conditions, i.e., pressure (88.2–121.8 bar), temperature (41.6–58.4°C) and extraction time (129.6–230.4 min), were optimized via RSM to achieve the highest squalene content. The optimal results were obtained at a temperature of 52.05°C, pressure of 104.8 bar and extraction time of 180 min. Consequently, two kinds of value-added products such as biodiesel (up to 96% FAME, in extract) and olive squalene (up to 75%, in raffinate) were produced in shorter processing times when compared with distillation results of 70 h.

Practical applications: Traditionally, squalene is extracted from liver oil of rare deep-sea sharks. Here we present the recovery of vegetal squalene in high purity from OODD. Our approach also presents a simple, reliable, and mobile solution. Squalene is widely used in cosmetics as a protective agent and natural moisturizer and as an adjuvant in influenza vaccines.