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Formation and occurrence of esters of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-CPD) in foods: What we know and what we assume



Although chloropropanols have historically been associated with the savoury food ingredient hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP), prepared by acid hydrolysis, the discovery of significant amounts of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-CPD) ‘bound’ as fatty acid esters in foodstuffs (3-CPD esters), especially in refined edible oils, is still a relatively recent discovery. The toxicological significance of these 3-CPD esters and their potential contribution to the dietary intake of non-esterified 3-CPD is not yet known and this review considers their likely metabolic fate in vivo. The latest developments in methods of analysis are presented while the occurrence of CPD esters and their potential formation mechanisms are discussed in detail. The generation of related compounds, possible measures of control and the future outlook are also considered.

Practical application: Comprehensive and up to date information concerning the state of the art with respect to the occurrence of esters of chloropropanediols in foods presented all in one place. This concise review of toxicological aspects, methods of analysis, occurrence, formation routes and potential measures of control provides data for practical use by professionals engaged in research, surveillance, risk management and regulation of these contaminants in foods.