• Concentration;
  • Environmental pollutants;
  • Nutritional;
  • Omega-3;
  • Powder;
  • PUFA;
  • Water-soluble


There is a need for improved processes for preparation of omega-3 PUFA formulations having a high content of PUFA, low levels of persistent environmental pollutants (EPs), acceptable oxidation stability and if possible, can be formulated as a powder. Using N-methyl glucamine (meglumine), which forms water-soluble omega-3 salts, an extraction process was developed that for the first time removed the EPs present in the starting material (commercially available cod liver oil added fish oil, CLO-FO). GC/high-resolution MS (GC-HRMS) showed levels of three common EPs that were below LOQ. Further, the fatty acid salts isolated were enriched in omega-3 and appeared as water-soluble white powders. The overall process increased the content of omega-3 by >70% compared with CLO-FO. The content of saturated fatty acids was reduced from 12.8 ± 0.6 to 2.1 ± 0.1%. In spite of using inert conditions during preparation, the oxidative deterioration was significant. When this issue is resolved, the powder may be further developed for use in tablets or other nutritional and health products.

See accompanying commentary by Destaillats [1293–1295]