Fatty acid composition of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) seed oil was determined and oil extraction was optimized using RSM. Five levels of the variables, roasting duration (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min), and temperature (80, 90, 100, 110, and 120°C) were used. Oil yield (OY), free fatty acid (FFA), anisidine value (AV), specific gravity (SG), and stability were responses and determined using standard methods. Major fatty acids found were oleic acid (37.92%), linoleic (35.01%), palmitic (19.65%), and stearic (6.07%). Myristic (0.16), myristoleic (0.17), palmitoleic (0.56), arachidic (0.14), and eicosatrienoic (0.20) were minor fatty acids content. OY, FFA, AV, SG, and stability varied from 18 to 23%, from 0.56 to 4.11%, from 6.93 to 35.7 mg/L, from 0.90 to 0.95, and from 0.68 to 5.42%, respectively. The treatment had significant (p<0.05) effect on OY, AV, and SG. However, non-significant effect of treatment was recorded on FFA and stability at 5% level of significance. The best desirability of 0.46 was achieved at roasting duration and temperature of 25 min and 110°C, respectively, which gave OY of 22%, initial FFA of 1.95%, AV of 31.2 mg/L, SG of 0.92, and stability of 2.67%.
Practical applications: Roselle seed is a by-product from the processing of roselle calyces. Reports from literature have shown that the seed contains about 20% edible health-promoting oil. Research into effect of pre-heat treatment on quality and quantity of oil extracted from roselle seed will serve as a guide in recommending optimum heating duration and temperature. The models developed in this study can be a working tool for producers of roselle oil extraction equipment and potential investors into commercial production of roselle oil. Output of this work may change the status of the seeds from a waste material to a valuable product.