• Adsorption;
  • Frying;
  • Modification;
  • Oil mill waste water;
  • Zeolite


Natural zeolite was modified by four different techniques namely using Tween80, β-cyclodextrine and olive mill waste water at RT and hydrochloric acid at 110°C, and then modified zeolites were used as adsorbent materials in six consecutive days dough frying with refined hazelnut oil. Some parameters in the oil samples of control and experimental groups were measured and the ranges were determined as following; total polar materials (TPM)-chromatography (4.09–70.22%), free acidity (0.16–1.19%), smoke point (221.50–184.00°C), conjugated dienoic acids (0.36–2.19%), L value (35.65–52.15), a* value (−0.18–5.98), b* value (−3.73–10.40), turbidity (0.70–10.40 NTU), viscosity (67.67–825.50 cP), and oil absorbed by the dough (5.10–8.85%). The results of this study have shown that both natural zeolite and modified zeolites have different level of activities as frying oil adsorbent materials. The best results were achieved with Tween80 modified zeolite for the TPMs, free acidity, instrumental color values, smoke point, and conjugated dienoic acid measurements. Similarly better result for turbidity was with olive mill waste water modified zeolite and for viscosity was with hydrochloric acid modified zeolite. It was determined that adsorbent treatment did not affect fat absorption level of fried dough.

Practical applications: The results of this study have shown that natural zeolite modification with different techniques can improve its adsorption capacity significantly. In this respect, utilization of modified zeolite for frying oil recovery applications can be an industrially sound practice since natural zeolite is a very cheap and easily found material.