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Keywords:

  • Animal science;
  • Anioxidants;
  • Bioactive lipids;
  • Biotechnology;
  • Lipidomics;
  • Seeds and oils

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

Six hundred scientists from around the globe participated in the 10th Euro Fed Lipid Congress, which was held from September 23rd to 26th, 2012 in Cracow, Poland. Cracow, which was Poland's capital from the 11th to the 16th century, has a beautiful old town with many sights and is visited by over 7 million tourists every year. The Congress venue was Auditorium Maximum of the Jagiellonian University – one of the oldest universities in the world, established in 1364. The Congress was opened on Sunday with plenary lectures followed by the welcome reception and table top exhibition – a perfect opportunity for networking and informal discussions. Every day started with a plenary lecture, and continued with three blocks of topical sessions, one in the morning and two in the afternoon, and poster viewing sessions in the evening. The lecture and poster abstracts are available online 1. In this Meeting Report, the chairmen and chairwomen present the highlights of the oral presentations given during the sessions. For more information on past and future EuroFedLipid meetings and congresses, please visit http://www.eurofedlipid.org.

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Plenary lectures

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

The Congress began with a lecture presented by Christopher Dayton (Bourbonnais, IL/USA) on the biotechnology processing revolution in fats and oils. Christopher highlighted the advantages and challenges of the enzymatic processing revolution which is occurring now.

Joseph Hibbeln (Bethesda, MD/USA), the laureate of the DGF Normann medal, presented on a particularly exciting topic – how dietary fats influence the human mind. He reviewed the evolution of diet with respect to the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in history from omega-3 rich hundreds of millions years ago to omega-6 rich in the 20th century (noteworthy is the vast growth of soybean consumption in the last 50 years) and discussed the results of important clinical studies of omega-3 effects on mental health. Is there a link between suicides and omega-3 supply? Can dietary changes in omega-6 intake affect levels of endocannabinoids, and thus influence obesity? The answer to these questions seems to be positive, and this area of research is likely to bring more interesting results in the future.

Daniele Piomelli (Irvine, CA/USA), the winner of the European Lipid Science Award, talked about lipid-derived messengers. Once again endocannabinoids, especially 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and their involvement in the regulation of thermogenesis, fat metabolism, fat intake and consequently obesity, were mentioned. Much research is still needed to fully understand how endocannabinoid receptors in the gut regulate events in the brain such as feeding control and dietary fat intake.

Florence Lacoste (Pessac, France) received the Chevreul medal and in her lecture she covered the occurrence and analysis of undesirable substances in vegetable oils. These include metals, dioxins, PCB, PAH, mineral oil, and other. They originate from the environment (e.g. pesticides) or from transport and storage (e.g. phthalates), or from the production process (e.g. 3-MCPD). Several interesting questions have been raised during the discussion following the lecture, for example: where does the chlorine atom in 3-MCPD come from? In EJLST, we have followed up on this question and you can find some answers in a recent editorial 2.

In his European Lipid Technology Award lecture, Frank Veldkamp (Lochem, the Netherlands) discussed the developments in filtration and highlighted the importance of yield.

Health and disease

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

Chairs: Gerd Schmitz, Ben van Ommen, Aldona Dembinska-Kiec, Andrea Palou, Kelley Fitzpatrick, Sho Nishikava, Ludger Brühl, Tomasz Guzik

The Health and disease session spanned 3 days and was focused mostly on diabesity and “omics” – especially lipidomics. Twenty-eight lectures and one keynote lecture were presented. In the keynote lecture delivered by G. Schmitz (Regensburg, Germany), the significant role of the new approach to lipid diagnostics, high-throughput methods for screening and monitoring of disease was highlighted. Application of integrated bioinformatic strategies for matching genomic (polymorphic genes, epigenetics), analysis of different lipidomic species (i.e. phosphatidylglycerol (PG), Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) or cardiolipin (species and the proteomics/transcriptomics of enzymes involved in mono- and polyglycerophospholipid synthesis gives us a new insight into interactions between different lipid synthesis activation of immune response pathways important for cardio-vascular, cancer, development studies related to metabolic disorders.

The session started on Monday morning with the section “Diabesity and Lipidomics” Chaired by professors Gerd Schmitz and Ben van Ommen.

M. Peer from Schmitz group (Regensburg, Germany) discussed the importance of analyzing a high number of new species detected by mass spectrometric (ESI-MS/MS) methods to understand biosynthetic and metabolic pathways. He presented a reliable and rapid GC method coupled to triple quad MS detection allowing quantitative analysis of cholesterol precursors (e.g. desmosterol, lanosterol), plant sterols (e.g. sitosterol, campesterol), and oxysterols (24-OH-, 25-, 27-OH-cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol) simultaneously in plasma.

M.J.O. Wakelam (Cambridge, Great Britain) reported on the importance of GPR120 activation through Gi, a PI-3-kinase-dependent phospholipase D signaling pathway in lipid droplet generation in Huh-7 cells. These data suggest that many defects in lipid metabolism are increasingly being shown to be dependent upon the PI-3-kinase pathway.

C. Wolfrum (Zürich, Switzerland) reported that retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ), a newly identified regulator of adipogenesis controlling insulin sensitivity in obesity, inhibits adipogenesis via its target gene matrix metallopeptidase-3 (MMP3). Additionally, his group identified an atypical bile acid derivative Ba1 as an endogenous ligand for RORγ.

B. van Ommen (Zeist, The Netharlands) focused on an optimal personalized medicine approach in type 2 diabetes treatment and diagnostics. He presented a series of challenge tests (stress response assays) based on lipidome, metabolome and proteome, that quantify all relevant aspects of phenotypic flexibility in gut, liver, vasculature, kidney, adipose and muscle, pancreas.

A. Palou (Palma de Mallorca, Spain) delivered a lecture about the programmed differences in the susceptibility to obesity. This concept involves the interaction between components of food or other environmental factors with human chromosomes, that may lead to an “imprinting” or “metabolic programming” of metabolic pathways and processes in individuals that may confer a different susceptibility to suffer abnormalities in adulthood.

A. Banach (Łodź, Poland) presented the current state of knowledge on the properties of HDL and factors/therapeutic agents, which may restrain the transformation of normal HDL into dysfunctional HDL. Therapeutic agents that increase HDL levels are now quite well established, but it is still not clear if they influence HDL quality.

During the second day section chaired by J. Kopecky (Prague, Czech Republic) and M. Avada (Villeurbanne, France), omega-3 PUFA were discussed.

J. Kopecky documented that omega-3 PUFA administered as phospholipids prevented glucose intolerance and tended to reduce obesity better than triacylglycerols in mice. In this model, omega-3 effects include changes in fatty acid composition of phospholipids, in formation of omega-3-derived lipid mediators, in gene expression, and in activity of adiponectin-AMPK axis and endocannabinoid system.

A. Dembińska-Kieć (Krakow, Poland) delivered a lecture dedicated the fluctuating changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which induces autophagy promoting lysosomal degradation of modified proteins and lipids – important mechanisms for cell survival and protection from apoptosis and cellular death. She presented the polyvalent effects of EPA/DHA supplementation on ER-stress, apoptosis, angiogenesis – related gene clusters in SVF and endothelial cells. A. Polus (Krakow, Poland), who uses “omics methods” in his work, discussed the mechanisms of dietary fatty acids-induced human preadipocytes (SVF) differentiation. The mechanisms of autophagy and inhibition of lipid droplet PAT-proteins by EPA was discussed. I. Wybranska (Krakow, Poland) presented the modulatory effects of different fatty acids (FAs) on energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in brain-derived cells.

T. Guzik (Cracow, Poland) discussed the role of perivascular fat and Renin-Angiotensinogen system in the immune response, the activation of which can lead to an imbalance between vascular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide production. Locally released adipokines modify immune system by chemokines (such as MIP-1 or RANTES) and inflammation connected with infiltration of T cells and macrophages to the vessel wall.

Oxidation and antioxidants

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

Chairs: Charlotte Jacobsen and Grzegorz Bartosz

This long session was divided into five subsessions during two consecutive days of the Congress. The subsession on “Oxidation Processes and Mechanisms” was opened by a stimulating keynote lecture on the role of water-lipid interfaces in the oxidation of lipids presented by Eric A. Decker (Amherst, MA). One of the conclusions from this presentation was that although the charge of the water-lipid interface is important, it seems more important to get rid of the negative charge than to have a large positive charge. Another conclusion was that for antioxidants to be effective in emulsified systems, they need to concentrate at the oil-water interface. Elena A. Maltseva (Moscow, Russia) presented data on the multimodal effects of a synthetic antioxidant (Phenozan K) on lipid oxidation and microviscosity of microsomal membranes pointing to significant effects of low concentrations of this compound on both parameters. M. Rudzińska (Poznań, Poland) presented analysis of volatile compounds formed during thermo-oxidation of sterols.

Within the subsession “Oxidation in Complex Matrices”, A. F. Horn (Kgs Lyngby, Denmark) described different effects of various emulsifiers on the lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched oil-in-water emulsions and cream cheese with pre-emulsified fish oil. K. Schwarz (Kiel, Germany) described interactions of secondary lipid oxidation products (aldehydes) with amino acids, Charlotte Jacobsen (Kgs Lyngby, Denmark) presented the effects of seaweed extracts in minced mackerel on lipid and protein oxidation, V. Kristinova (Trondheim, Norway) analyzed oxidation of marine lipids in an in vitro model of gastric juice, and Gloria Márquez-Ruiz (Madrid, Spain) accounted of evaluation of lipid oxidation in infant formulas.

This session was followed by a session on “New developments within antioxidants”. This session dealt with antioxidants in multiphase systems and the importance of the localization of the antioxidant in the system as well as its possible interactions with the interface. These topics were covered by A.-D. M.Sørensen (Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark), A. Heins (Kiel, Germany) and P. Villeneuve (Montpellier, France). In addition, V.D. Kancheva (Sofia, Bulgaria) discussed the synergy, antagonism, and additivism of mixtures of phenolic compounds.

The topic of Tuesday's first oxidation session was “General oxidation and antioxidants”. First K. Miyashita (Hakodate, Japan) showed results on the high oxidative stability of glyceroglycolipids from brown seaweed. He demonstrated that these lipids were more stable than salmon roe phospholipids, and sardine oil, and suggested that the high stability was due to the special structure of the brown seaweed lipids. V. Gardenia (Bologna, I) discussed the effect of microwave heating on fatty acid methyl esters. The conclusion from this study was that domestic microwave heating does not represent an oxidation problem due to the relative short heating times normally used. F. Paiva-Martins (Vigo, Spain) presented findings on the effect of lipophilization of cinnamic acids on their localization and antioxidative effect in emulsions. Similarly, to the findings reported in the previous session she concluded that the compound with the highest concentration in the interfacial region also provided the best oxidative stability. J. Bauer (Kiel, Germany) presented data on the antioxidative properties of extracts from corn fiber and wheat bran. He found that methanolic extracts from both sources had good antioxidative properties in in vitro assays and emulsions. E. Ryckebosch (Kortrijk, Belgium) discussed the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of microalgal oils rich in omega-3 PUFA. In her talk, she also discussed different methods to extract the lipids from the microalgae.

The last session was concerned with “Methods for determination of lipid oxidation”. The first presentation by R. Mozuaraityte (Trondheim, Norway) gave an overview of some of the spectrophotometric methods that are used for determining primary and secondary oxidation products. She discussed the pros and cons of the different methods. The next presentation by C. Jacobsen (Kgs. Lyngby) concerned possible pitfalls when using the solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for extracting volatile oxidation products for GC analysis. She concluded that SPME may not be the best method for analysis of complex matrices. R. Przybylski (Lethbridge, Canada) used different spectroscopic methods to decipher the structure of dimers formed during thermo-oxidation of β-sitosterol. C. Gertz (Hagen, Germany) demonstrated that results obtained with FT-NIR on degradation of frying oils strongly correlated with results obtained with the more time-consuming traditional methods for FFA, anisidine value, polar materials, and polymerized TAG. In the last presentation, K. Jodko-Piórecka (Warsaw, Poland) discussed the antioxidative activity of dopamine when studied in model lipid systems. She demonstrated that dopamine is able to both silence or trigger oxidative stress depending on the microenvironment.

Thirty posters were devoted to oxidation and antioxidants.

Biotechnology

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

Chairs: Marek Adamczak and Uwe T. Bornscheuer

The biotechnology session was comprised of a total of eight lectures, mainly dealing with modification of microbial metabolism towards the synthesis of valuable lipids and modification of enzymes and their application in lipid improvement. The keynote lecture was presented by J. Ogawa (Kyoto, Japan) dealing with the possibility of microbial production of rare fatty acids and their uses as potential functional food and chemical material; much of the presented lecture is covered in a Highlight Article published in October 2012 in the EuroFedLipid Highlights special issue of EJLST 3. The main focus was on fatty acids synthesized by Mortierella alpina 1S-4 and mutants defective in desaturases producing arachidonic acid and n-1, n-3, n-4, n-6, n-7, and n-9 PUFAs, respectively. The application of metabolic engineering of pathways and global regulators in Yarrowia lipolytica was used to develop clean and renewable commercial production of EPA-rich biomass and oil by fermentation. The application of EPA oil as a human nutrition supplement and EPA-rich biomass as salmon feed was analyzed by Q. Zhu (Wilmington, DE, USA). A unique variant of lipase A from Candida antarctica selective towards trans- and saturated fatty acids was obtained by the U. Bornscheuer group (Greifswald, Germany) through protein engineering. This lipase will be useful for removing trans-fatty acids from partially hydrogenated plant oil. Furthermore, a lipase variant was created, which can hydrolyze only short-to-medium chain fatty acids. N.M. Bandarra (Canha, Portugal) presented results for the synthesis of DHA and EPA by Thraustochytrium sp. and Aurantiochytrium sp. depending on the salinity level of the medium. An increase in salinity led to a decrease of DHA and EPA synthesis.

The second day of the biotechnology session started with a lecture by A. Steinbüchel (Münster, Germany) about lipid-accumulating microorganisms as alternative sources for fuels. The potential of alternative biofuels produced by microorganisms or obtained by enzymatic processes was discussed. The possibility of microbial synthesis of lipids for biodiesel production was also emphasized. The application of eco-friendly media for organic synthesis reactions catalyzed by lipases was discussed by J. Lecomte (Montpellier, France). He proposed that deep eutectic solvents (DES) can be useful for enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The enzymatic synthesis of structured triacylglycerols (sTAG) rich in GLA and CLA was presented by M. Adamczak (Olsztyn, Poland). The sTAG synthesis was improved by medium engineering methods and one- or two-step procedures. G. Aggelis (Patras, Greece) presented the possibility of modifying the fatty acid composition of Brachionus plicatilis by using the biomass of microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata or Chlorella sp., as a feed (which are rich in EPA or GLA, respectively). The largest amounts of EPA and DHA are located in neutral lipids, but interestingly they are also incorporated into body phospholipids.

Lipids in animal science

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

Chairs: Marian Czauderna and Milan Marounek

This session covered four lectures with a broad spectrum of lipid topics including microbial fatty acid regulation, oxidative stability, and sensory properties of chicken meat enriched in PUFA and examples of the effects of dietary manipulations on broiler performance and carcass traits. The keynote lecture, entitled “Seleno-compounds affected the fatty acid profile in in vitro incubated ovine ruminal fluid containing linoleic acid”, was delivered by M. Czauderna (Jabłonna near Warsaw, Poland). The author documented that selenite and selenate affected the fatty acid profile in in vitro incubated ovine ruminal fluid containing linoleic acid (LA). Indeed, selenate elevated the concentration of CLA isomers and the precursor of c9t11CLA in ruminal fluid with LA, therefore, we can hypothesize that feeding selenate with LA in ruminal fluid will improve the nutritive value of products derived from ruminants. In particular, meat, milk and dairy products should contain a higher concentration of CLA isomers derived directly from ruminal digesta, and from endogenous synthesis of conjugated dienes from t11C18:1 or t7C18:1. Moreover, recent studies documented that feeding a diet enriched in selenate resulted in a substantial increase of other health-promoting-elements (such as Se and Zn) in the liver and muscles of sheep. Therefore, this is another possibility of improving ruminant meat and milk by increasing the concentration of Se-cysteine (an essential component of seleno-proteinse) and consequently by protecting PUFA from per-oxidation damage.

Charlotte Lemahieu (Kortrijk, Belgium focused on the influence of algal feed supplementation with autotrophic algal biomass on enrichment of eggs with omega-3 PUFA as well as the zoo technical performance of the hens. She documented that there was no significant impact of algal feed supplementation on body weight, feed intake, egg production, and egg weight. She found that egg yolk could be enriched with different levels of omega-3 PUFAs, mainly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (like DHA), depending of algae species added to the ration.

The third part of the session was entitled “Effects of dry fat and some vegetable fats on broiler performance and carcass traits”. N.N. Toprak (Ankara, Turkey) discussed how different fat sources (dry fat-calcium-palm fatty acid, canola oil, soybean oil and acid oil) could improve broiler performance and carcass traits. She concluded that the use of dry fat in broiler diets did not show any positive effects on performance and carcass characteristics. She found that among the vegetable fats, canola oil was found that the highest value all of the research criteria.

The last lecture was presented by P. Zdunczyk (Olsztyn, Poland). He presented findings from an investigation of the effect of diets with a different n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, resulting from the addition of different dietary oils: soybean, rapeseed, and linseed on the fatty acid profile, oxidative status and sensory properties of turkey breast meat. His results documented that replacing soybean oil with linseed oil, but not with rapeseed oil, increased the proportion of PUFA in the total fatty acids pool and improved the n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio, yet it also adversely affected the sensory properties and oxidative stability of meat. Moreover, he argued that both fresh and stored breast meat from turkeys fed the diet enriched in linseed oil was susceptible to oxidative changes, as manifested by the significantly higher TBARS concentrations (17.1 and 81.1) compared with those of the soybean group (10.9 and 53.0 nmol/g, respectively).

Rapeseed

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

Chairs: Bertrand Matthäus and Aleksandra Szydlowska-Czerniak

The rapeseed oil session consisted of two parts with 9 oral presentations and 4 posters. The main focus of the lectures was on rapeseed oil and its by-products in human nutrition and the processing and application of protein and bio-active products from rapeseed.

U. Wahrburg (Münster, Germany) started with an excellent keynote lecture about the role of rapeseed oil in human health and nutrition. She gave an overview about the recent findings and recommendations showing that rapeseed oil is a valuable source of the omega-3 fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid with an optimal omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (2:1). Current research has shown specific cardioprotective effects of alpha-linolenic acid and an observational evidence for a protective effect against nonfatal myocardial infarction and anti-inflammatory and endothelial-dependent vasodilatative effects. But research has to continue because it is still not clear whether the health potential is due to the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or to independent physiological functions.

C. Barth (Postdam, Germany) presented another interesting lecture on rapeseed and human health that rapeseed oil intake mitigates inflammation and inhibits and enhances blood coagulation via a reduction of fibrinogen levels and via lower platelet aggregation. Additionally, he noted that rapeseed protein retarded the development of insulin resistance in animal experiments. This suggests that more efforts should be made for the industrial production of rapeseed protein.

The effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid preconditioning on its cellular incorporation and conversion into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was discussed by M. Pignitter (Vienna, Austria). For the experiments 13C-labeled linseed oils was used to follow the concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and its long-chain homologs, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic aicd. For the estimation of the conversion and retro-conversion of omega-3 fatty acids a multi-compartment model was designed. In conclusion, long term dietary intake of linseed oil with an optimized ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the alpha-linolenic acid incorporation but might induce the conversion from alpha-linolenic to docosahexaenoic acid.

In two interesting lectures, F. Pudel (Magdeburg/Germany) and J. Palomino (Magdeburg/Germany) discussed the possibilities of processing and application of rapeseed protein. There is a huge demand for high-quality protein for human nutrition, animal and fish feeding and different technical purposes, but up to now there is no industrial production. One reason is that rapeseed protein is classified as “Novel Food” in Europe, which does not allow its use as food or food additive before completion of a time-consuming and expensive regulatory approval process. Nevertheless, promising techniques for the enrichment or isolation of the protein from the rapeseed meal are available and the presentation described the extraction and purification of the protein by a new EBA IEX process, which leads to extremely pure individual napin and cruciferin protein. Additionally, the successful application of the protein in aquaculture and paper industry was presented.

Another topic of the session was bioactive compounds in rapeseed and rapeseed oil. B. Matthäus (Detmold, Germany) showed the application of a heat-treatment on rapeseed meal by fluidized bed equipment for the generation of 2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol (vinylsyringol or canolol). This phenolic compound, formed by decarboxylation of sinapic acid, the main phenolic acid in rapeseed, is described to have antioxidant and antimutagenic properties, which makes it interesting as food or cosmetic additive. The fluidzed bed treatment allows the formation of canolol in the rapeseed meal, which can be extracted and enriched by super-critical carbon dioxide. K. Shrestha (Ghent, Belgium) discussed the effect of roasting on the oxidative stability of high erucic mustard oil, which is used most commonly as liquid cooking oil in India and Nepal. As a potent radical scavenger formed during seed roasting canolol was isolated and identified by NMR, MS, UV, and fluorescence spectra. In storage experiments at 50°C in the dark the oil was stable for 3 months, but the oxidative stability was only slightly correlated with the concentration of canolol. Instead, a good correlation was found with lipophilic browning reaction markers, which could play an important synergistic role with canolol and tocopherols on the oxidative stability of the roasted mustard seed oil.

R. Amarowicz (Olsztyn, Poland) showed that variety and type of cultivation can have an effect not only on the content of phenolic compounds in rapeseed but also on the antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of extracts obtained from rapeseed. In a nice presentation, A. Szydlowska-Czerniak (Torun, Poland) discussed the characteristics and analysis of bioactive compounds in rapeseed and its products. In the first part of the presentation, the different bioactive compounds in rapeseed oil such as phytosterols, tocopherols or phenolic compounds as well as methods for the determination of these compounds were described. Significant amounts of bioactive components are lost during oil production and the antioxidant capacity of the refined rapeseed oil is reduced. New trends to increase the content of bioactive compounds in rapeseed oil were discussed in the second part of the lecture concerned with the development of new varieties, the modification of the rapeseed pre-treatment before oil pressing, the application of enzymes or the supplementation of the final product with phenolic extracts.

Oilseeds and plant breeding

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

Chairs: Antoni Banaś and Ronald B. Pegg

Over three sessions, a keynote lecture and 11 oral presentations were devoted to oilseed lipids and their biochemistry as well as biotechnology.

The first session (Monday afternoon) began with an excellent keynote lecture presented by S. Stymne (Alnarp, Sweden). In the presentation, he outlined research strategies for the replacement of a significant portion of the fossil oils used by the chemical industry with plant oils by extrapolation on the present state of the art of sciences in the biotechnology area. The next lecture was given by S. Gatolin (Vicomoscano, Italy). He presented on research efforts aimed at modification of “tobacco seed” oil for different applications. In the subsequent lecture, Magdalena Miklaszewska (Gdansk, Poland) presented substrate specificity of two wax synthases (from Simondsia chinensis and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus) and discussed their potential to design plants for the production of wax esters. The session closed with O. Malinowska's (Gdansk, Poland) lecture concerning application of fruit seed oils (i.e. apple, blackcurrant, raspberry, strawberry) in the cosmetic industry.

The second session (Tuesday, afternoon) began with A. Banaś' (Gdansk, Poland) lecture concerning the relative contribution of DGAT and PDAT (i.e. two enzymes catalyzing the last steps of triacylglycerols biosynthesis) in the accumulation of seed oil of sunflower, safflower, rape and crambe. The next lecture also dealt with seed oil biochemistry: A. Kawiński (Gdansk, Poland) presented substrate specificity of lipases from germinated seeds of jojoba, camelina, and crambe and discussed the implication of these findings in terms of the engineering of plants towards the production of wax esters in their seeds. In the following lectures, S. Mapelli (Milan, Italy) presented the efforts of plant breeders aimed at obtaining varieties of Jatropha curcus, which would be the best adapted to the climatic conditions of India. Finally in the last session, a lecture by R. Pegg (Athens, GA/USA) discussed the impact of cultivar selection on changing characteristic of peanut oil in the market place and how this might impact the health and wellness sector.

The last (third) session (Tuesday, afternoon) concentrated mostly on oil quality. R. Pegg began with a presentation on the oil quality from different oilseed radishes, mostly concentrating on their phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and tocopherol levels. M. Siedlicka (Poznan, Poland) discussed the efforts to improve cold-pressed flax oil by mixing it with evening primrose oil, possessing high antioxidative properties and a pleasant mild taste and odour. Following this, R. Verhé (Ghent, Belgium) described the oil quality from different berry seeds, concentrating not only on fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols, but also on the content of minor components such as tocopherols, sterols, polyphenols, and squalene. The session closed with an excellent lecture by Laura Nyström (Zurich, Switzerland), the laureate of the European Young Lipid Scientist Award, concerning the properties of polar phytosterols conjugates.

All lectures presented state of art in the field of oilseeds science and were followed by lively, informative discussions in a friendly atmosphere.

Olive oil

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

Chairs: Lanfranco Conte, Aziz Tekin

The session comprised eight interesting presentations divided into two subsessions, started with a keynote lecture on “Towards New Instrumental Approaches to Understand the Sensory Perception of Virgin Olive Oil” given by R. Aparicio (Sevilla, Spain). He mentioned new methodologies to determine individual contribution of each volatile compounds to the sensory responses 4. C. Gertz (Hagen, Germany) talked about quick objective chemical indices obtained by FT-NIR that correlate sensory characteristics. L. Conte (Udine, Italy) presented the outcomes of monitoring of several chemical parameters in bottled extra virgin olive oils during its shelf life; pigments underwent changes while other parameters did not; the observed changes were not related to the content of polyphenols. G. Gonzales from (Sevilla, Spain) who focused on volatile markers for sensory defects in virgin olive oil 4.

C. Dinnela (Florence, Italy) talked about sensory functionality of virgin olive oils with different sensory profiles. F. Paiva-Martins (Porto, Portugal) presented a review about protective activity of olive oil polyphenols metabolites. Asli Yorulmaz (Aydin, Turkey) spoke about the changes in olive and olive oil characteristics during maturation. She concluded that the harvest time of the olives is depended on variety, region and climate. The session ended with the presentation by E. Karacabey (Isparta, Turkey) on the influence of rosemary flavouring on quality parameters of virgin olive oils. The results showed that rosemary had significant effect on peroxide value and free acidity of the final product.

Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

Chairs: Anna Nicolaou and Wojciech Piekoszewski

The Analytical, Imaging, Authenticity, and Lipidomics session comprised 9 podium and 11 poster presentations. The keynote lecture “Identification and characterization of oxidized phospholipids generated by lipoxygenases in immune cells” was presented by V.B. O'Donnell, (Cardiff, UK). She presented mass spectrometry methods employed for the discovery and identification of new lipid mediators present in complex biological samples. The presentation summarized the current knowledge regarding the structure, mechanisms of formation, cell biology, and signaling actions of these oxidized phospholipid species, and concluded that phospholipid oxidation by acutely activated immune cells is a controlled event, likely to play a central role in regulating membrane biology and innate immune function during health and disease.

Three oral presentations were related to metabolomics and lipidomics. A. Nicolaou, (Bradford, UK) discussed advantages of liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry in the specific and accurate quantitation of an array of lipid mediators found in a range of biological materials, and pointed out the importance of mediator lipidomics. Two lectures presented by B. Matthäus (Detmold, Germany) focused on the application of metabolic and lipid profiles to the identification of pine nuts responsible for the pine nut syndrome, and discussed the recently upgraded database of seed oil fatty acids (SOFA) as a tool for lipidomic profiling of wild plant seeds (to read more about the SOFA database, 5). Other presentations included in the session described new analytical methods for the determination of free fatty acids and lipids. Although mass spectrometry techniques such as ESI and MALDI combined with GC were the most frequently used analytical tools, a number of papers presented methods based on HPLC, UV, IR, and Raman spectroscopy.

Finally, several presentations discussed the application of analytical methods, including the paper given by K. Lagutin, (Wellington, New Zealand) who presented data on the discovery and structural elucidation of simple lipids from novel thermophiles found in New Zealand. A team from Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland presented results of a study of specific interactions of erythrocyte membrane structure with chosen anti-malarial agents, whilst K. Larsson and co-workers, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden and University of Ljubljana Slovenia, studied the effect of digested cod liver oil on the oxidation, energy metabolism and protein expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) showing that TBARS values increased to 71 and 273 µmol/kg lipid during digestions of fresh and slightly rancid cod liver oils, respectively.

Other topics

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References

Chair: Ryszard Amarowicz

This session included four oral presentations on a wide range of topics. G. Haraldsson (Reykjavik, Iceland) demonstrated the first total synthesis of enantiopure all-cis-(2′R)-1-O-(2′-methoxy-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenyl)-sn-glyserol. Methoxylated alkyl-glycerols have been reported to possess immunostimulatory effects and anticarcinogenic properties. They are particularly abundant in the liver oil of sharks. The synthesis was executed by a highly convergent approach involving (R)-epichlorohydrin and (R)-solketal as chiral C3-synthons and using repeated condensations of terminal acetylenes with propargyl halides.

E. Sadecka (Gdańsk, Poland) stated in her presentation that programmed glycerol esterification in the presence of selected surfactants leads to modified emulsifiers with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic properties. These products can be used for stabilizing of water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsion formulations, which included fruit oils are characterized by a valuable composition of fatty acids and relatively high content of tocopherols.

The presentation of V. Lapinte (Montpellier, France) dealt with acrylated derivatives based on glycerol in the polymer field. Kinetic studies have been carried out, identifying the reactivity of acylated and cyclocarbonate-based monomers and determining the transfer constant of telogen agent in both cases. The selective hydrolysis of cyclocarbonate and acetal protective groups of glycerol-based oligomers was performed under acidic and basic conditions. Finally, the functionalization of the polymers was successfully achieved by telomerization or by a reaction between amine and cyclocarbonate.

The last speaker in the section M. Granvogl (Freising, Germany) highlighted the development of direct quantitation methods for 3-MCPD esters for glycidyl esters via LC-MS techniques on the basis of synthetic internal standards labeled with stable isotopes. Further, the influence of the fatty acid composition and of the parameters during the refinery process on the formation pathway and on the formed amounts of 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters were presented.

Besides the podium presentations, more than 200 posters were presented during the Congress, and it was no easy task for the scientific committee to award the prizes. The winners were Takuya Chiba from Waseda University in Tokorozawa, Japan, with a poster entitled “Disruption of neuropeptide Y gene limits stress resistance and lifespan extension effects of calorie restriction in mice”, A. Ruminska, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology in Warsaw, Poland (“Endogenously synthesized AEA and 2-AG have an opposite effect on insulin sensitivity in C2C12 myotubes”) and V. Ilko, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Czech Republic (“Formation of 3-MCPD esters from acylglycerols in model systems”). Congratulations!

We hope that this report, which covers 9 of the total 12 topical sessions (Processing (keynote lecture see 6), Physical chemistry, and Sustainability (keynote lecture see 7) are not covered), will give you an idea about the scope and size of the Euro Fed Lipid Congresses – to explore more of the presented research you can access the abstracts online 1. We look forward to the next Congress in October this year – and we hope to see you there (11th Euro Fed Lipid Congress, 27–30 October 2013, Antalya, Turkey)!

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plenary lectures
  4. Health and disease
  5. Oxidation and antioxidants
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Lipids in animal science
  8. Rapeseed
  9. Oilseeds and plant breeding
  10. Olive oil
  11. Analytics, imaging, authenticity, lipidomics
  12. Other topics
  13. References