The idea of a Cardiolipin workshop in Italy came to the meeting organizers in June 2011, during the mini-sabbatical of Angela Corcelli in New York City in the Laboratory of Michael Schlame. They thought to take advantage of the presence of the 54th International Conference on the Bioscience of Lipids (ICBL) at Bari in 2013 to organize the Cardiolipin workshop as a satellite event. The web page of the Cardiolipin Meeting was kindly supported by the Euro Fed Lipid organization. About 60 scientists attended the meeting focused on the multiple roles of cardiolipin in mitochondria in physiological and pathological states in various organisms as well as in bacterial membranes. In addition to ICBL participants, many students and colleagues of the Universities of Bari and Lecce attended the meeting, increasing the number of total participants to about 100. As defects in cardiolipin metabolism may cause Barth syndrome, the meeting also presented an occasion to establish contacts between the nascent Italian Barth Syndrome Foundation and scientists actively involved in cardiolipin research.