In this Issue
Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 12∕2013
Novel sources of omega-3 for food and feed
This issue of EJLST presents the last three papers from a special collection covering novel sources of omega-3 the first part was published in the September issue. The study by Trattner and Vestergren provides information on endogenous control genes and identifies tissue specific expression of miRNAs (noncoding RNAs involved in gene regulation of various biological and metabolic processes) in Atlantic salmon. The paper by Thomsen and colleagues investigates the oxidation progress and pathways in krill and fish oil during 21 days of incubation at 40°C. The results indicate that classical methods for measuring oxidative deterioration of lipids are not useful for krill oil. Baron and colleagues describe how replacing marine ingredients by organic plant ingredients in the diet of rainbow trout impacts the fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of the fish muscle.
Trattner, S. and Vestergren, A. S. Tissue distribution of selected microRNA in Atlantic salmon. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2013, 115, 1348–1356.
Thomsen, B. R. et al. Investigation of oxidative degradation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill and fish oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2013, 115, 1357–1366.
Baron, C. P. et al. Organic plant ingredients in the diet of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss). Impact on fish muscle composition and oxidative stability. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2013, 115, 1367–1377.
What are the trans fatty acids issues in foods after discontinuation of industrially produced trans fats?
With the decline of dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) derived from partial oil hydrogenation, the interest is focused on the remaining sources of TFA such as ruminant fats, deodorized oils, frying oils, and synthetic conjugated fatty acids supplements. The nutritional assessment of individual TFA isomers is needed for labeling purposes and accurate TFA definitions, and new analytical methods need to be established to resolve desirable and undesirable TFA. This information can then be used to construct a database and as a basis for meaningful recommendations. Aldai and colleagues review the classifications of TFA, variations in bio- and industrial syntheses of TFA from different sources, analytical difficulties and concerns related to the current trans fat policies. This review is a part of the EuroFedLipid Highlights 2013 collection.
Aldai, N. et al. What are the trans fatty acids issues in foods after discontinuation of industrially produced trans fats? Ruminant products, vegetable oils, and synthetic supplements. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2013, 115, 1378–1401.
DHA intake modulates the proteome in aorta, targeting energy metabolism and oxidative stress pathway
Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit the development of atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms of action at the vascular level remain unclear. Joumard-Cubizolles and colleagues investigated the effect of DHA supplementation on protein expression in aorta of low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR−∕−) mice as a model of atherosclerosis. Protein expression was determined by a proteomic approach followed by bioinformatics analysis and in addition protein oxidative modifications such as 4-hydroxynonenal adducts were investigated. Nineteen differentially expressed proteins were found in the DHA goup; most of these proteins are involved in energy metabolism and oxidative stress pathways. DHA supplementation did not enhance oxidative modification of proteins with 4-HNE.
Joumard-Cubizolles, L. Proteomic analysis of aorta of LDLR−∕− mice given omega-3 fatty acids reveals modulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress pathway. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2013, 115, 1492–1498.