Following the olive oil production chain: 1D and 2D NMR study of olive paste, pomace, and oil
Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014
© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology
Volume 116, Issue 11, pages 1513–1521, November 2014
How to Cite
Del Coco, L., De Pascali, S. A., Iacovelli, V., Cesari, G., Schena, F. P. and Fanizzi, F. P. (2014), Following the olive oil production chain: 1D and 2D NMR study of olive paste, pomace, and oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 116: 1513–1521. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.201400139
- Issue published online: 5 NOV 2014
- Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 26 JUN 2014 05:04AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 JUN 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 14 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Received: 20 MAR 2014
- PON (PONa3_00334)
- Human and Environment Health Research Center (2HE – Research Center)
- Extra virgin olive oil;
- NMR spectroscopy;
- Olive oil extraction;
- Olive paste;
- Olive pomace
Extraction methods are critical in the production and success of an extra virgin olive oil ready for consumption. The first step of olive oil extraction procedure produces an olive paste, which is subsequently processed by separation of the liquid phases (oil and vegetable water) from the pomace. Profiles of Apulian extra virgin olive oils and the deuterated chloroform extracts of its paste and pomace were studied by 1D and 2D NMR (NMR) spectroscopy without separation and pre-treatment of samples. In order to study the metabolic profiles variation in the paste and pomace extracts with respect to the corresponding EVOOs, multivariate statistical analyses (PCA and OPLS DA) of the 1H NMR data were performed. As expected, a different minor components profile, in particular for the presence of higher content of secoiridoids, lignans and phenolic compounds in olive paste and pomace extracts with respect to the EVOOs, was observed.
Practical applications: Amount of extractable oil from olive paste and pomace after the production processes of EVOO was measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Identification of metabolites in olive paste and pomace was performed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy without separation and pre-treatment of samples. The chemical composition of major and minor components (in particular secoiridoids, lignans, and phenolic compounds) present in olive paste and pomace chloroform extracts could be used for extraction process trimming purposes as well as in fingerprint analyses for cultivar and/or geographical origin certification of olive oil production. Moreover, determination of the entire metabolic content of different materials of the olive oil production process could be exploited in other applications such as recycling on agricultural land, studies of the health benefits on human nutrition and alternative dietary lipid source in animals. In fact, it is worth noting that the olive paste and pomace extracts could be even healthier than other vegetable oils.
The extraction processes are critical in the extra virgin olive oil production. The chemical composition of EVOOs and its paste and pomace extracts have been investigated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR).