SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
  • Apfelbaum, E. P., Norton, M. I., & Sommers, S. R. (2012). Racial colorblindness: Emergence, practice, and implications. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 205209.
  • Apfelbaum, E. P., Pauker, K., Ambady, N., Sommers, S. R., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Learning (not) to talk about race: When older children underperform in social categorization. Developmental Psychology, 44, 15131518.
  • Apfelbaum, E. P., Pauker, K., Sommers, S. R., & Ambady, N. (2010). In blind pursuit of racial equality. Psychological Science, 21, 15871592.
  • Apfelbaum, E. P., Sommers, S. R., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Seeing race and seeming racist? Evaluating strategic colorblindness in social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 918932.
  • Arends-Tóth, J., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2003). Multiculturalism and acculturation: Views of Dutch and Turkish-Dutch. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 249266.
  • Banks, J. A. (2004). Multicultural education: Historical developments, dimensions, and practice. In J. A. Banks, & C. A. M. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research in multicultural education. (pp 330). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
  • Benet-Martinez, V. (2010). Multiculturalism: Cultural, social, and personality processes. In K. Deaux, & M. Snyder (Eds.), Handbook of personality and social psychology. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Berry, J., & Kalin, R. (1995). Multicultural and ethnic attitudes in Canada: An overview of the 1991 national survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 27, 301320.
  • Bigler, R. S. (1999). The use of multicultural curricula and materials to counter racism in children. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 687705.
  • Bonilla-Silva, E. (2003). Racism without racists. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Citrin, J., Sears, D. O., Muste, C., & Wong, C. (2001). Multiculturalism in American public opinion. British Journal of Political Science, 31, 247275.
  • Clark, K. B., & Clark, M. P. (1947). Racial identification and preferences in Negro children. In T. M. Newcomb, & E. L. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in Social Psychology. New York: Holt.
  • Cohen, G. L., & Garcia, J. (2005). “I am us”: Negative stereotypes as collective threats. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 566582.
  • Correll, J., Park, B., & Smith, A. (2008). Colorblind and multicultural prejudice reduction strategies in high-conflict situations. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 11, 471491.
  • Crosby, J., Monin, B., & Richardson, D. (2008). Where do we look during potentially offensive behavior? Psychological Science, 19, 226228.
    Direct Link:
  • Davies, P. G., Steele, C. M., & Markus, H. R. (2008). The impact of foreign threat on America's tolerance for diversity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 308318.
  • Devine, P. G., & Elliot, A. J. (1995).Are racial stereotypes really fading? The Princeton trilogy revisited. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 11391150.
  • Dovidio, J. F. & Gaertner, S. L. (1998). On the nature of contemporary prejudice: The causes, consequences, and challenges of aversive racism. In Eberhardt J., Fiske S. T. (Eds.), Confronting racism: The problem and the response (pp. 332). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., & Saguy, T. (2009). Commonality and the complexity of “we”: Social attitudes and social change. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 320.
  • Ely, R. J., & Thomas, D. A. (2001). Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 229273.
  • Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878902.
  • Gaertner, S. L., Mann, J. A., Murrell, A., & Dovidio, J. E. (1989). Reducing intergroup bias: The role of recategorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 239249.
  • Goff, P. A., Eberhardt, J. L., Williams, M. J., & Jackson, M. C. (2008). Not yet human: Implicit knowledge, historical discrimination, and contemporary consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 292306.
  • Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of a spoiled identity. New York: Touchstone.
  • Government of Canada (2012). Multiculturalism. Retrieved from: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/multiculturalism/index.asp Accessed date: 12/8/2011.
  • Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 14641480.
  • Gutierrez, A. S., & Unzueta, M. M. (2010). The effect of interethnic ideologies of the likability of stereotypic vs. counterstereotypic minority targets. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 775784.
  • Holoien, D. S., & Shelton, J. (2012). You deplete me: The cognitive costs of colorblindness on ethnic minorities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 562565.
  • Ito, T. A., & Urland, G. R. (2003). Race and gender on the brain: Electrocortical measures of attention to the race and gender of multiply categorizable individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 616626.
  • Jones, J. M., Lynch, P. D., Tenglund, A. A., & Gaertner, S. L. (2000). Toward a diversity hypothesis: Multidimensional effects of intergroup contact. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 9, 5362.
  • King, M. L. K., Jr. (1963). I have a dream. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/mlk_speech/ Accessed date: 12/8/2011.
  • Knowles, E. D., Lowery, B. S., Hogan, C. M., & Chow, R. M. (2009). On the malleability of ideology: Motivated construals of colorblindness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 857869.
  • Levin, S., Matthews, M., Guimond, S., Sidanius, J., Pratto, F., Kteily, N., & Pitpitan, E. V. (2012). Assimilation, multiculturalism, and colorblindness: Mediated and moderated relationships between social dominance orientation and prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 207212.
  • Markus, H. R., Steele, C. M., & Steele, D. M. (2000). Colorblindness as a barrier to inclusion: Assimilation and nonimmigrant minorities. Daedalus, 129, 233259.
  • Morrison, K., & Chung, A. H. (2011). “White” or “European American”? Self-identifying labels influence majority group members' interethnic attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 165170.
  • Morrison, K., Plaut, V. C., & Ybarra, O. (2010). Predicting whether multiculturalism positively or negatively influences White Americans' intergroup attitudes: The role of ethnic identification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 16481661.
  • Neville, H. A., Lilly, R. L., Duran, G., Lee, R. M., & Browne, L. V. (2000). Construction and initial validation of the color-blind racial attitudes scale (CoBRAS). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 5970.
  • Norton, M. I., Sommers, S. R., Apfelbaum, E. P., Pura, N., & Ariely, D. (2006). Color blindness and interracial interaction: Playing the political correctness game. Psychological Science, 17, 949953.
    Direct Link:
  • Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, 551 U.S. 701 (2007).
  • Park, B., & Judd, C. M. (2005). Rethinking the link between categorization and prejudice within the social cognition perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 108130.
  • Peery, D. (2011). The colorblind ideal in a race-conscious reality: The case for a new legal ideal for race relations. Northwestern Journal of Law and Social Policy, 6, 475495.
  • Plaut, V. C. (2010). Diversity science: Why and how difference makes a difference. Psychological Inquiry, 21, 7799.
  • Plaut, V. C., Garnett, F. G., Buffardi, L. E., & Sanchez-Burks, J. (2011). “What about me?” Perceptions of exclusion and Whites' reactions to multiculturalism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 337353.
  • Plaut, V. C., Thomas, K. M., & Goren, M. J. (2009). Is multiculturalism or color blindness better for minorities? Psychological Science, 20, 444446.
    Direct Link:
  • Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, 559 (1896) (Harlan, J., dissenting).
  • Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L., & Malle, B. (1994). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 741763.
  • Purdie-Vaughns, V., Steele, C. M., Davies, P. G., Ditlmann, R., & Crosby, J. R. (2008). Social identity contingencies: How diversity cues signal threat or safety for African Americans in mainstream institutions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 615630.
  • Richeson, J. A., & Nussbaum, R. J. (2004). The impact of multiculturalism versus color-blindness on racial bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 417423.
  • Rosenthal, L., & Levy, S. R. (2010). The colorblind, multicultural, and polycultural ideological approaches to improving intergroup attitudes and relations. Social Issues and Policy Review, 4, 215246.
  • Rosenthal, L., Levy, S. R., & Moss, I. (2011). Polyculturalism and openness about criticizing one's culture: Implications for sexual prejudice. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 116, 117.
  • Ryan, C. S., Casas, J. F., & Thompson, B. K. (2010). Interethnic ideology, intergroup perceptions, and cultural orientation. Journal of Social Issues, 66, 2944.
  • Ryan, C. S., Hunt, J. S., Weible, J. A., Peterson, C. R., & Casas, J. F. (2007). Multicultural and colorblind ideology, stereotypes, and ethnocentrism among Black and White Americans. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 10, 617637.
  • Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Forbes, C. (2008). An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance. Psychological Review, 115, 336356.
  • Schofield, J. W. (1986). Causes and consequences of the colorblind perspective. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 231254). New York: Academic Press.
  • Schofield, J. W. (2007). The colorblind perspective in school: Causes and consequences. In J. A. Banks, & C. A. McGee Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (pp. 271295). New York, NY: Wiley.
  • Sellers, R. M., Rowley, S. A. J., Chavous, T. M., Shelton, J. N., & Smith, M. A. (1997). Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity: A preliminary investigation of reliability and construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 805815.
  • Sherif, M. (1966). In common predicament (pp. 7193). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797811.
  • Stevens, F. G., Plaut, V. C., & Sanchez-Burks, J. (2008). Unlocking the benefits of diversity: All-inclusive multiculturalism and positive organizational change. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44, 116133.
  • Swim, J. K., Hyers, L. L., Cohen, L. L., & Ferguson, M. J. (2001). Everyday sexism: Evidence for its incidence, nature, and psychological impact from three daily diary studies. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 3153.
  • Swim, J. K., Hyers, L. L., Cohen, L. L., Fitzgerald, D. C., & Bylsma, W. H. (2003). African American college students' experiences with everyday racism: Characteristics of and responses to these incidents. Journal of Black Psychology, 29, 3867.
  • Tajfel, H. (1969). Cognitive aspects of prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 25,79-98.
  • Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel, & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 724). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
  • Verkuyten, M. (2005). Ethnic group identification and group evaluation among minority and majority groups: Testing the multiculturalism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 121138.
  • Verkuyten, M. (2009a). Self-esteem and multiculturalism: An examination among ethnic minority and majority groups in the Netherlands. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 419427.
  • Verkuyten, M. (2009b). Support for multiculturalism and minority rights: The role of national identification and out-group threat. Social Justice Research, 22, 3152.
  • Vorauer, J. D., Gagnon, A., & Sasaki, S. J. (2009). Salient intergroup ideology and intergroup interaction. Psychological Science, 20, 838845.
    Direct Link:
  • Vorauer, J. D., & Sasaki, S. J. (2010). In need of liberation or constraint? How intergroup attitudes moderate the behavioral implications of intergroup ideologies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 133138.
  • Wolsko, C., Park, B., & Judd, C. M. (2006). Considering the tower of Babel: Correlates of assimilation and multiculturalism among ethnic minority and majority groups in the United States. Social Justice Research, 19, 277306.
  • Wolsko, C., Park, B., Judd, C. M., & Wittenbrink, B. (2000). Framing interethnic ideology: Effects of multicultural and color-blind perspectives on judgments of groups and individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 635654.
  • Zick, A., Wagner, U., van Dick, R., & Petzel, T. (2001). Acculturation and prejudice in Germany: Majority and minority perspectives. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 541557.
  • Zirkel, S. (2008). The influence of multicultural educational practices on student outcomes and intergroup relations. Teachers College Record, 110, 11471181.