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Abstract

Using a sample of 602 Turkish Muslims from Germany and the Netherlands, we examined the influence of ingroup norms and perceived discrimination on religious group identification and host national identification. Participants experiencing pressures from their ingroup to maintain an ethnoreligious lifestyle as well as those who perceived discrimination by natives identified more strongly with their religious group and, in turn, identified less with the host country. Further, the positive relationship between discrimination and religious group identification and the negative relationship between religious and national identification were especially strong for participants who perceived incompatibility between Western and Islamic ways of life. It is concluded that Muslim and host national identities are not always mutually exclusive and that it is important to study the conditions that reconcile and contrast them. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.