In three studies, we examined whether the anticipation of group-based guilt and shame inhibits in-group favoritism. In Studies 1 and 2, anticipated group-based shame negatively predicted in-group favoritism; in neither study did anticipated group-based guilt uniquely predict in-group favoritism. In Study 3, we orthogonally manipulated anticipated group-based shame and guilt. Here, we found that the shame (but not the guilt) manipulation had a significant inhibitory effect on in-group favoritism. Anticipated group-based shame (but not guilt) promotes egalitarian intergroup behavior. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.